Evolution Encyclopedia Vol. 1

Chapter 1  



2] Background Radiation

(43) BACKGROUND RADIATION IS NOT A PROOF—Background radiation, first discovered in 1965, is said to be the single, clear-cut evidence that the Big Bang occurred. But this radiation comes from the stars; it is not "the last dying breath of the Big Bang." There are several reasons why we can have such certainty in rejecting background radiation as an evidence of the Big Bang.

Background radiation, along with the speed theory of the redshift, are generally considered to be the two main evolutionary "evidences" for the Big Bang. Both are extremely important to Big Bang theory, for they constitute the only presumed "evidence" that it ever occurred. Because of the importance attached to these two lines of "evidence," we will give them special attention. In the process of doing so, we will also consider quasars.

We will first consider background radiation, and why it does not support the theory:

There is a faint amount of heat radiating through outer space. Since it comes uniformly from all directions, it is believed that it is the same throughout the universe. Please understand that this is an extremely small amount of "heat"; in fact, it is only a little less than 30K above absolute zero! This radiation is but a microwave type of "heat," —but there is not much "heat" in it! The temperature of background radiation registers at -2700C 1-4540F].

("Kelvin" is the name given to an absolute temperature scale, in which 0K. is absolute zero. Kelvin uses the Celsius scale, so each degree Kelvin would be equal in extent to a degree on the Celsius scale. "Absolute zero" would be 0K, -273C, or -459F.)

Why would there be any heat in outer space? Why is it radiating evenly, smoothly in all directions? There are several possibilities, two of which are these: One is the  evolutionary view that it is the final heat flowing from the location of the Big Bang. The other view is that it is nothing more than radiation from the stars.

 Let us for a moment pause and clarify this radiation and its "heat" value: There is a variety of electromagnetic radiation's. At the lowest level are to be found the high-energy, short wavelength forms. Apparently the lowest are gamma rays; next comes X-rays, and then ultraviolet (sunburn) rays. Then, we pass through the visible spectrum of light: violet, blue, green, yellow, and red. As the waves lengthen and the energy in the radiation becomes less intense, we pass on up to infrared (heat rays), then microwaves, and thence on into radio waves.

"Background radiation" includes a little of several types of radiation, but is primarily composed of microwaves. Later in this discussion, we will also mention a NASA analysis of the kind of "heat" radiation we are best acquainted with: infrared radiation.

Obviously, background radiation does not have a form of "heat" we are used to, for it is not infrared radiation. However, scientists refer to its Kelvin value as "heat," so we will also. In addition, scientists frequently mention that background radiation has a Kelvin heat value of 3, but that figure is only a rounded number; it is actually 2.7K. That is why you will find both figures used in this discussion and the included quotations.

In 1965, *A.A. Penzias and *R.W. Wilson, researchers at Bell Laboratories, using a sensitive radio astronomy telescope, discovered low-energy microwave radiation coming from outer space. This energy is extremely slight. Big Bang theorists claim that this background radiation somehow proves the Big Bang. They say it is the last part of the explosion!

They originally said that the proof would rest in four presumed facts about the background radiation: (1) It would come from only one direction from where the Big Bang occurred. (2) It would have the right radiative strength to match the Big Bang mathematical theory. (3) It would emit the proper spectrum. (4) It would not be a smooth radiation. But, with the passing years and additional research Into background radiation, all four "facts" fizzled out. It has become a leading objection to the Big Bang Theory.

In desperation, millions of dollars have been spent on special space shuttle experiments and satellite research projects, in an effort to salvage background radiation. Yet, at the same time, in public statements background radiation is presented as the special "evidence" that the Big Bang must have occurred. But this "evidence" is so weak that many scientists acknowledge it as such.

"Perhaps the most significant objection to this cosmology [the Big Bang], stems from the presence of the cosmic background radiation." —*J. Silk, The Big Bang (1979), p.321.

1 – It is omnidirectional. Since its discovery, scientists have been unable to match its directional radiation (its isotropy) with the Big Bang predictions. Background radiation comes from every direction, while the Big Bang theory requires that it should come from only one direction—from where the Big Bang explosion occurred.

It was at first thought that background radiation came from only one direction. Big Bang theorists were jubilant at the news. But, at that very time, *Hannes Alfven, professor of Physics at the University of California (San Diego) and one of the world's leading astrophysicists, did careful research and disclosed that even if the background radiation did have a singleness of isotropy (single-directional radiation, or radiation from only one direction in space), the Big Bang would still be only one of several possible conclusions as to the nature of such radiation.

"The observed cosmic microwave background radiation, which has a high degree of spatial isotropy . . is generally claimed to be the strongest piece of evidence in support of hot big bang cosmologies by its proponents.. [But] The claim that this radiation lends strong support to hot big bang cosmologies is without foundation." —*Hannes Alfven and *Asoka Mendis, "Interpretation of Observed Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation," in Nature, April 21, 1977, p. 698.

Then, a few years later, scientists discovered that the background radiation was coming from many directions. In 1981, Science News reported that, instead of coming from one direction, background radiation had been discovered to be coming from all directions, thus disproving any connection with a so-called "Big Bang." There is no directional uniformity to this radiation, and lacking it the radiation proves nothing. As the "last dying breath of the Big Bang," this radiation should be flowing from where that primeval explosion took place. But, instead, it is flowing evenly from every direction.

"Cosmologists would like to believe that the universe is homogeneous and isotropic, that it is relatively smooth over-all and the same in all directions . . Our evidence for isotropy [a single-direction radiation source] is the microwave radio radiation, the so-called 3K black-body that pervades space and seems to be a relic of the very beginning of time. It used to seem to be the same in all directions.

"Not any more. Five or six years ago we began to hear of a possible dipole anisotropy [two-directional source]. Then at the beginning of 1980 came hints of a quadruple anisotropy.. A quadruple anisotropy [radiation coming at us from four directions, each at right angles to the other] has to belong to the substance of the radiation of the universe itself." —*Science News, 1981.

Yet this need not have come as a surprise. *Arno Penzias and *Robert Wilson were the radio astronomers at Bell Laboratories who in the 1960s first discovered background radiation (and in 1978 received a Nobel Prize in Physics for having done so). When they first heard this radiation on the Lab's new microwave horn antenna, they wrote in their notes that it was a lot of static at the very short wavelength end of the spectrum, and that the static noise came from all directions. Within a year, they noted that, because it was coming from all directions, the radiation was equally strong at all hours of the day and all seasons of the year.

2 • It Is too weak. Another problem with background radiation, is that, theoretically, it should be far more powerful than it is. Because it is so weak, it does not meet the requirements for an after-radiation from the Big Bang. The radiation remaining from the Big Bang would have been between ten and a thousand times more powerful.

"The big bang theory includes a microwave background . . but this success is tempered by the fact that it was expected to be between ten and a thousand times more powerful than is actually the case." —*Fred Hoyle, The Intelligent Universe (1983), p. 181.

"The latest data [on background radiation] differ by so much from what theory would suggest as to kill the big bang cosmologies. But now, because the scientific world is emotionally attracted to the big-bang cosmologies, the data is ignored." —*Fred Hoyle, "The Big Bang in Astronomy," in New Scientist, 92 (1981), p. 522.

3- It lacks the proper spectrum. Background radiation lacks the proper spectrum. It does not have the ideal "black body" (total light absorption) capacity which would agree with the *Max Planck calculation.

*Narlikar explains the problem in New Scientist (July 2, 1981). The radiation should have the "black-body spectrum," calculated by *Max Planck decades earlier. But recent studies reveal that there are worrisome differences that do not fit the evolutionary cosmology.

"Black-body radiation" is the name given by scientists to radiation emitted by matter when it is heated. Although this radiation is usually in the form of light, physicists speak of it as black-body radiation, on the assumption that the radiation itself absorbs light perfectly, reflecting none, as a black body would do. In reverse, it would also radiate perfectly in a wide band of wavelengths. But background radiation does not fit the theoretical 2.7K black body spectrum required for the Big Bang theory.

4 - The spectrum should be far hotter than it is. The heat emitted by the background radiation should have a far higher temperature, if a Big Bang had occurred 10-20 billion years ago. Here is how three scientists explain it:

"Is there a way to decide whether a 3K blackbody radiation spectrum has come from an expanded high temperature radiation or from the heating of a substance from zero to 3? Yes . .

"It is a known fact that there is dust absorbing a fraction of the galaxy's light. Therefore, this dust must be heating up. If the galaxy really is billions of years old, our galaxy's dust would be pretty hot by now, approximately 100K. It would emit a 100K blackbody radiation spectrum many orders of magnitude more intense than a 3K blackbody spectrum. The 100 degree spectrum certainly would be there. If the 3K radiation is a leftover from the big bang, say, 10 billion years ago, then the galaxy would contain two superimposed blackbody spectra. The spectrum from the big bang would be centered at 3K, and the spectrum from galactic dust heating would be centered at 100K.

"Since there is only one measured blackbody spectrum as far as we know, and since galactic gas and dust heating does occur, the one spectrum must be due to galactic dust and gas—the spectrum consistent with a recent creation." —Russel Akridge, Thomas Barnes, and Harold S. Slusher, "A Recent Creation Explanation of the 3K Background Black Body Radiation," in Creation Research Society Quarterly, December 1981, p. 182.

Background radiation is too cool. The temperature of the theoretical Big Bang radiation should have been 5K. But It is not; It Is only 2.7 K (2.73 degrees K, to be exact).

5 - It Is too smooth

5 - It Is too smooth. More recent research discloses that this background radiation is definitely too smooth or uniform to be of use to the Big Bang theory. The radiation from the Big Bang had to be lumpy enough to produce stars and galaxies, and this residual background radiation ought to have similar qualities. But, in marked contrast, it is too smooth, or, as the scientists, say, "too homogenous."

"Recent measurements of the density fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background radiation show no fluctuations greater than 2.5 parts in 100,000. No galaxy could grow from a fluctuation that small-even in 15 billion years." —*William R. Corliss, Stars, Galaxies, Cosmos (1987), p. 185.

Background radiation is too smooth; too smooth in the extreme! The original Big Bang radiation would have had to be lumpy in order to produce stars (Of course, that is if stars could be made by floating gas). Large amounts of money have been—and continue to be—spent in an attempt to locate lumps in background radiation, but all without success.

Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) was launched by NASA in the Fall of 1989. The mission of this satellite was specifically to analyze the background radiation.

"Its instructions can detect faint microwave radiation, thought to be left over from the early universe." —*Stardate radiobroadcast, March 29, 1990.

But It quickly became apparent that COBE was unable to prove a relationship between the background radiation and the Big Bang. In fact, just the opposite had taken place:

"COBE's job is to explore the microwave background in a detailed way. The spacecraft has already revealed some surprises. As 1990 began it was announced that preliminary sweeps of the sky by COBE showed that the early universe must have been extremely smooth.

"That's surprising, because we know we see vast structures in our universe; huge clusters of galaxies and expanding voids between them.

"Many cosmologists [astronomical theorists] expected COBE to reveal small disturbances in an otherwise uniform flow outward from the Big Bang. These disturbances might have provided the seeds for the large structures we see today [stars and galaxies]. So far, the disturbances are missing, and the evolution from a smooth early universe to today's colossal structures remains puzzling."— *Ibid.

Evolutionists have suggested "pinch effects" and "plasma bottles" as a solution to the problem. But Bouw explains that the lack of magnetic fields in outer space rules out such theoretical solutions:

"Evolutionary models have never been successful in accounting for the formation of a single star, let alone an entire galaxy or cluster of galaxies. Virtually every [evolutionary] starformation model invoked today assumes that both stars and galaxies started out as density irregularities in the very early stages of the big bang. Without such an assumption, the physics of collapsing gas clouds will not allow for the formation of objects even remotely resembling the major constituents of the universe

"In order for such density irregularities to be present in the early stages of the big bang, certain explanations have been proposed. These include magnetohydrodynamical `pinch' effects (like plasma bottles or magnetostrictions), but the existence of such pinch-effects in the early stages of the universe requires that there presently be a cosmic magnetic field. The existence for such a cosmic magnetic field is in doubt, there being conflicting evidence for and against it. Furthermore, the 3-degree Kelvin black-body radiation field shows no evidence for any significant clumps of matter." —Gerardus D. Bouw, "Cosmic Space and Time" in Creation Research Society Quarterly, June 1982, p. 29.

6 - A failure from the beginning. In 1926, *Arthur Eddington predicted that a normal radiation of a temperature of about 3.2K was being emitted by interstellar dust particles. Later this radiation was discovered, and was found to have a temperature of 2.7 K, which was fairly close. Eddington's prediction was made prior to and totally separate from Big Bang theory. It was a prediction about stars and had nothing to do with the Big Bang.

With Eddington's prediction in mind, in 1948 while *R.A. Alpher and *R. Herman were working out their Big Bang model, they predicted that a microwave background radiation would be discovered, and that it would come from only one direction—the direction from where the Big Bang explosion occurred, and that it would have a radiation temperature of 5K. In 1965 those two Bell Lab workers found the radiation, but it did not fulfill the Big Bang specifications in either way. It was less than 3K [-270C; -4540Flin temperature, and it came uniformly from all directions.

Although most astronomers everywhere jumped onto the Big Bang bandwagon because of the Bell Lab discovery, yet we have seen that it does not fit the requirements of the theoretical Big Bang.

"This energy density [of the background radiation] is not too different from the energy densities observed in other astrophysical phenomena in the universe, such as starlight, cosmic rays, galactic magnetic fields and so on. Does this mean that the microwave background also is of astrophysical origin and not a relic of the big bang?" —*V. Narlikar, "Was there a Big Bang?" New Scientist Vol. 91, pp. 19-21.

7 - What !s the source of background radiation? The more researchers explore the universe, the lumpier they find it to be; but with two outstanding exceptions. The first of these is background radiation (microwave radiation), and the second is infrared radiation. Both of these are extremely smooth, and both are found in outer space.

Evolutionists declare that background radiation is the last dying breath of the original Big Bang. We have already discussed a number of reasons why that is not true (omnidirectionality, temperature, etc.)

We will here suggest that background radiation may be nothing more than radiation from stars and galaxies. Simple as that.

"The interstellar dust and gas in our galaxy has absorbed enough of our galaxy's own light to raise its temperature from zero to 3K . . It is the 3K dust and gas that radiates the 3K radiation." —Russell Akridge, Thomas Barnes, and Harold S. Slusher, "A Recent Creation Explanation of the 3 K Background Black Body Radiation" in Creation Research Society Quarterly, December 1981, p. 159. [The complete 4-page article provides details in scientific terminology with mathematical formulas. If you wish to go deeper into this topic, the article is well worth reading.]

In November 1989, NASA launched the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE), the first satellite specifically designed "to measure the Big Bang's leftover radiation." At great expense this satellite was placed in the skies in order to help prove the Big Bang theory. But COBE failed to accomplish its intended purpose. It only obtained additional evidence that background radiation did not fit the pattern.

Earth-based measurements had already shown that this radiation is surprisingly even. So COBE was sent up to locate fluctuations in it. Equipped with three different types of extremely sensitive detectors, it was the mission of COBE to find some unevenness in the radiation—but it found none at all. Without some sort of turbulence or density fluctuations in the early universe, the theorists could not explain how perfectly smooth radiation flows could have produced stars and galaxies, and formed galactic clusters, and superclusters.

But, not only did COBE measure background (microwave) radiation, it also analyzed infrared radiation—and found that the measurements matched! Both were perfectly smooth, and in perfect agreement: A smooth curve with a black-body radiation at a temperature of 2.73 Kelvin was obtained for both microwave and infrared radiation! This was the most accurate temperature measurement for both radiations that had ever been made—and it indicates a common source for both types of radiation. That source would be—not the Big Bang—but the stars.

Thus, COBE only found confirmatory evidence that the radiation is stellar, not primeval. It was discovered that background (microwave) radiation has the same radiation as does infrared radiation. Aside from their wavelengths, both outer space radiations are alike in several significant aspects: temperature, smoothness, and omnidirectionality. This would indicate a common source for both. It is believed that both infrared radiation and background (microwave) radiation come from the stars.

[3] The Redshift

(44) THE REDSHIFT THEORY IS INCORRECT—The Red-shift is the second primary "evidence" used by evolutionists to prove the Big Bang theory.

"This redshift, observed in the spectral lines of distant galaxies and interpreted as a Doppler effect, is the key to cosmology." —*Carl Sagan, Cosmos (1980), p. 252.

A theory about background radiation and a theory about the redshift are the two best "evidences" in favor of the Big Bang origin-of-universe theory. But the facts about background radiation do not match the evolutionary theory about the radiation, and the facts about the redshift do not match the evolutionary theory about it. We shall now turn our attention to the redshift:

One of several theories about the redshift has become a keystone holding together the Big Bang theory. This is because evolutionists have adopted an odd explanation of the redshift that would require that the farther a star is from us, the faster it is moving away from us,—and those stars farthest from us are moving away at incredibly fast speeds. This "speed theory," in turn, is the basis for yet another theory: the expanding universe theory. We shall discuss that later in this chapter.

This redshift speed theory would mean that all the stars out in space are rushing away from us. Evolutionists tell us that stars are moving outward from where the Big Bang originally took place. That, in brief, is why the speed theory of redshift is so crucial to the Big Bang theory.

The speed theory is now the generally-accepted scientific theory of the redshift, simply because evolutionary scientists refuse to consider any other explanation, and not many scientists dare buck the establishment and speak up. But some do.

Yet there are other explanations for the redshift that fit the scientific facts better, and there are scientific facts which directly disprove the evolutionists' theory of redshift.

But before we consider the evidence and those various explanations—exactly what is this redshift?

Relatively white light can be split by a triangular prism of glass into all the colors of the rainbow. Using a spectrometer, this can also be done to starlight. Dark vertical bands mark the spectrum at various points. Analyzing these bands, scientists can determine the type of chemical elements which are in each star. ("Spectral type" is a star's classification, based on its spectrum and keyed to its surface temperature and mass, "spectrogram" is a photograph of a star's spectrum; "spectroscopy" is the study of spectra.)

Ultraviolet is on one end of the spectrum and has a higher frequency and a shorter wavelength than visible blue light. On the other end of the visible spectrum is infrared (astronomers call it "red"). It has a lower frequency and a longer wavelength than visible red light. Every star and galaxy is red-shifted to some extent. The striking fact is that the farther a star or galaxy is from us, the more its light appears to us to be moved, or shifted, toward the red end. Scientists have named this strange oddity about starlight "the redshift."

That is the redshift. Now, what causes it? Here are four explanations:

1 - The Speed Red-shift. This theory is also called the "Doppler theory of redshift," and is the theory maintained by the supporters of evolution and stellar cosmology theories. We will here call it the "speed theory." Scientists have theorized that this redshift in the star spectra occurs because all the stars of the heavens are rapidly moving away from us, but the shift could be caused instead by simple factors which are far less sensational.

As interpreted by the speed theory, all the stars and galaxies in the sky are moving away from us at very high velocities. Those stars farthest from us are moving away from us at the fastest speeds. The most distant stars are said to be traveling at close to the speed of light as they speed away from our little world. Oddly enough, the farther a star is from us, the faster it is said to be speeding away from us.

"Light from a moving object undergoes the same kind of wavelength shifting, or Doppler effect, that changes the pitch of a siren as a police car or ambulance speeds by: Light from objects approaching Earth is shifted toward the shorter wavelength blue end of the spectrum, and light from receding objects, toward the longer wavelength red end. The greater the shift, the swifter the rate at which an object is approaching or receding. . . The faster it is moving away from Earth, the more the constituent wavelengths of its light will be shifted toward the lower frequency, red end of the spectrum."—*Robert Somerville (ed.), Cosmic Mysteries, pp. 58, 87.

We will learn that, interpreting the universally-observed redshift in distant stellar objects, by the speed theory results in a number of fantastic theories. Yet the speed theory is clung to, for without it the Big Bang theory has almost no evidence in its favor.

2 - Other explanations of the redshift. Why does this shift in starlight occur? The distance from our planet to the star has something to do with it. This is quite obvious, and agreed upon by nearly everyone. To say it another way, the redshift is the apparent lengthening of a star's light on a spectrum in relation to how far away that star is from us.

This redshift of starlight is actually a decrease in the energy of light. It has traveled a great distance to reach us from a star, and by the time it arrives the light is not as strong as it once was. This decrease in energy results in a lengthening of the wavelength of that light, when measured with a spectrometer,

Since the redshift indicates a decrease in starlight energy, this loss of energy could be caused by a motion of the stars away from us (the speed theory).

But there are other possible reasons why that energy loss could occur as the light travels across the vast distances of outer space. Here are three of them:

[1] Gravitational Red-shifts. The pull of gravity on light rays could cause a loss of energy. This would include not only the star it first left, but other stars it passes by. From a study of eclipses, we already know that gravity actually bends light rays slightly. Gravity can and does affect starlight. It could also gradually slow those light rays as they speed through space. The result would be that the farther away a star is from us, the more it would reveal a redshift. None other than *Albert Einstein predicted that it would be discovered that gravity could bend light—and that it would cause a redshift. His prediction was first shown to be correct when the companion of Sirius, a small dwarf star, was found to bend starlight from Sirius.

"The year after Sirius B was found to have its astonishing properties, Albert Einstein presented his general theory of relativity, which was mainly concerned with new ways of looking at gravity. Einstein's views of gravity led to the prediction that light emitted by a source possessing a very strong gravitational field should be displaced toward the red (the Einstein shift). [Walter S.] Adams, fascinated by the white dwarfs he had found, carried out careful studies of the spectrum of Sirius B [a dwarf star] and found that there was indeed the redshift predicted by Einstein.

"This was a point in favor not only of Einstein's theory but also of the superdensity of Sirius B, for in an ordinary star such as our sun, the redshift effect would be only one-thirtieth as great. Nevertheless, in the early 1960s this very small Einstein shift produced by our sun was detected."— *Isaac Asimov, Asimov's New Guide to Science (1984), p. 50.

It is well known by scientists that gravity can slow light rays, bend their direction, and, when theoretically powerful enough, even reverse the direction of the light! In 1796, Pierre Laplace, believing that light was like ordinary matter, in that it could be slowed by gravity. He postulated that very large stars would prevent light from escaping and would thus be dark. In 1915, *Albert Einstein published his general theory of relativity, in which he showed that gravity can bend light. In 1916, *Karl Schwarzchild solved Einstein's 1915 equations, showing the theoretical amount of mass radius that would be required to produce enough gravity to stop light from traveling away from an object. There is no doubt but that the farther starlight has to travel to reach us, the more it will be slowed by gravity from stars and gas that it passes on its journey. This slowing will register as an ever-so-slight shifting of its spectrum toward the red.

Gravity from a star can bend distant light passing near it, and it can slow it also. Enough repetitions would slow starlight enough to skew its spectrum toward the infrared. The farther away is the star sending starlight to us, the greater will be the shift in that starlight toward the red.

Interestingly enough, no starlight spectrum is ever shifted toward the blue, but always toward the red. In all directions, this redshift of starlight has the same strength, relative to the distance that the star is from us.

"[Speed or Doppler redshifts] are caused by recession of one object in relation to another, and are similar to the Doppler effect of a car rapidly driving away and causing the sound heard by an observer to shift from treble to bass . . [In contrast] A gravitational redshift is the shift to longer wavelengths of light passing through a large gravitational field." —*American Institute of Physics, Glossary of Terms Used in Cosmology (1982), pp. 17-18.

[2j Second-order Doppler shift. A light source moving at right angles to an observer will always be red-shifted (the second-order Doppler Effect). This would occur if the universe were moving slowly in a vast circle around a common center.

Moons revolve around planets, planets about suns, and suns about galaxies. Each of these planets, suns, and galaxies—rotates about itself (our galaxy rotates at 500,000 miles an hour). It is very possible—even likely—that all the galaxies out in space travel in a gigantic circle around a central point in the universe. We know that such circular movement is necessary for balance and stability in moons, planets, and galaxies; why not for the universe as a whole? Such a universal rotation would add stability to all the island universes in relation to each other.

Yet that gigantic orbit would also cause a redshift in the spectra of star light.

(3) Energy-loss shift. Light waves could themselves directly lose energy as they travel across the long distances of space. This would not be unusual. Other things lose energy, light rays could also. Keep in mind that the redshift is ever so slight. It indicates the loss of only a very small amount of energy. This is also called the "tired light theory. "

Any of the above three reasons alone, or together, could easily explain the redshift. It would explain why the stars and galaxies nearest us always have the least redshift, while those farthest away have the most.

Thus we find that the spectral redshift can easily be explained without inventing an exploding universe with the outermost objects rushing outward at 95 percent of the speed of tight. (Keep in mind that the speed of light is very great; approximately 186,000 miles a second. On this basis, a light-year is a vast distance of almost 6 trillion miles.)

Summarizing the above, (1) the speed theory of the redshift (also called the first-order Doppler effect redshift theory) is said to be another evidence of the Big Bang. But we have here of but another instance of using one theory to prove another. There are serious flaws in the speed theory; these flaws would be overcome by accepting one of (or a combination of) other possible redshift Interpretations: (2) Gravitational shift—The pull of gravity on light rays would cause a loss of energy in starlight. We know that light is affected by gravity. (3) Second-order Doppler shift—A light source moving at right angles to the observer will always be red-shifted. This would occur if the universe were slowly moving in a vast circle around a common center. Everything else in the universe is organized and mutually orbiting; why not the universe as a whole? Orbiting brings stability to heavenly bodies. (4) Energy-loss ("tired light") shift—Light waves could themselves directly lose energy as they travel across the great distances of space. Either one of these three theories, or in combination together, are easily able to explain why there is an energy loss as starlight moves toward us—and do it without the immense problems faced by the evolutionary theory.

3 - The Arp Discoveries. There is a powerful minority of astronomers who consider the current speed theory of the redshift, which is based solely on Doppler movement-away-from-us effect, to be a "frail assumption." Leading out is * Halton C. Arp of the Mount Wilson and Las Campanas Observatories. He has produced a variety of convincing evidence, showing that there is no relation between redshift and distance of starlight from us.

Arp has spent over 30 years researching into these matters at some of the world's largest observatories. At the time of this writing, he is on the staff of the Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics in West Germany. * Kauffmann, another leading astrophysicist, in 1981 declared Arp to be "the most-feared astronomer on earth" (*W. Kaufmann III, "Most Feared Astronomer on Earth" in Science Digest 89(6):76-81, 1981, p. 117.) Arp's research is so pivotal, that it threatens to overturn several foundational bases of modern theoretical astronomy.

Here are three statements from Arp's latest book:

"In case the thesis of this book is correct, we want to know what the factors are that led to this long, implacable rejection of new knowledge, the wasted effort, and the retardation of progress." —*Halton Arp, Quasars, Redshifts and Controversies (1987), p. 5.

"There is massive, incontrovertible evidence for important phenomena and processes.. which we cannot currently understand or explain." —*Op. Cit, p. 2.

"It is of profound importance to recall now that for a number of classes of . . objects, there was never any shred of evidence that they obeyed a Hubble relation. . The assumption that. . objects obeyed a redshift-distance relation sprang simply from the feeling that if one kind of object [Sb galaxies] did, all objects must do so. Such a generalization is an example of the oldest of logical fallacies. Nevertheless, it has become an article of faith despite many examples of contradictory evidence. "—*Op. Cit., p. 178.

In the next section, we will briefly review the Hubble hypothesis as it relates to the redshift and expanding universe theories. In order to discuss Arp's discoveries, we should be aware of two facts:

[1] Bridged galaxies disprove the redshift theory. Galaxies are island universes, each with 100 million or more stars. Some of these galaxies have bridgework connections linking them together. The bridges prove that the pair of galaxies are close to each other. Arp has discovered a number of these connected galaxies—each of which have markedly different redshifts than the other! But if the Doppler effect theory of the redshift were correct, Arp would not have made such discoveries, since each pair of galaxies would share the same approximate distance from us!

[2] Quasars disprove the redshift theory. Quasars will be discussed in more detail later in this chapter. These are unknown objects which show drastically-shifted spectrums toward the red. Arp has also made discoveries about quasars which provide additional evidence against the current redshift theory.

"The astronomer Halton Arp has found enigmatic and disturbing cases where a galaxy and a quasar, or a pair of galaxies, that are in ap parent physical association have very different redshifts. Occasionally there seems to be a bridge of gas and dust and stars connecting them. If the redshift is due to the expansion of the universe, very different redshifts imply very different distances." —*Carl Sagan, Cosmos (1980), pp. 255.

Commenting on the strange situation of quasars with one redshift, closely associated with galaxies with a different one, *Corliss says:

"As with the statistical association of quasars with galaxies, the implication of physically interacting objects with different redshifts is revolutionary. The redshift distance relationship is a pillar of modern astronomy, and this pillar would be shattered if paired objects had different redshifts." —* W.R. Corliss, Stars, Galaxies, Cosmos (1985), p. 100

The research of *Arp and his colleagues, *Burbidge, *Narlikar, and *Sulentic, has ranged all over the universe—and everywhere they have found examples of these linked structures with totally different redshifts.

"It cannot be stressed too strongly, however, that these discordant redshifts are not discovered in just one or two isolated cases that have no relation to each other. But in every case we can testlarge clusters, groups, companions to nearby galaxies, companions to middle-distance galaxies, companions linked by luminous filaments, galaxies interacting gravitationally, chains of galaxies—in every conceivable case, we come out with the same answer: the same discordant redshifts for the same general class of younger, fainter galaxies." — *H. C. Arp, "Evidence for Discordant Redshifts," in G. Field (ed.), The Redshift Controversy, 54.

Arp has studied over 260 galaxies in more than 80 groups. In each one he has found significant redshift differences. Arp has tabulated 24 main galaxies and 38 discordant redshift companions, and has published a catalogue of hundreds of discordant redshifts. Yet he says his research has been ignored:

"This important result has largely been ignored by astronomers because it does not fit in with the current theoretical framework." — *H. Arp, "Further Examples of Companion Galaxies with Discordant Redshifts and Their Spectral Peculi arities," in Astrophysical Journal 263 (1982), p. 54.

The mathematical possibility of such discoveries occurring by chance are remote.

"Twenty-two new quasars close to galaxies are reported. Most of them are so close to companion galaxies that the probability of accidental occurrence is less than 0.01." —*Halton Arp, "Quasars near Companion Galaxies, " Astrophysical Journal, 250:31 (1981).

It becomes a major tragedy when evolutionary theory becomes more important than scientific advance, and highly-qualified researchers must be eliminated lest the theory be endangered.

"Burbidge and Arp are upset by what they see as a distressingly one-sided approach to the quasar redshift question by the community of astronomers, 'Observational evidence exists on both sides,' Burbidge argues, 'Both sides are probably right. What is unfortunate . . is the great prejudice in the field. Arp's papers and others suggesting that some quasars are nearby—are held up, interminably refereed or rejected. Heckman's polemic [calling for recantation] would not be published, were it on the other side.'

"If Heckman's call for recantation is meant in such 'good humor,' Arp asks angrily, 'why has telescope time been cut off for proponents of the [opposing] viewpoint? . .

" 'Much is at stake,' says Burbidge. 'If it is accepted that just one large redshift is not due to the universal expansion [expanding universe], Pandora's box is open. Much of our currently claimed knowledge of the extragalactic universe would be at risk, as would a number of scientific reputations." —"Companion Galaxies Match Quasar Redshifts: The Debate Goes On," Physics Today, 37:17, December 1984. [Heckman's statement, calling for recantation by Arp's group, is given in *TM. Heckman, et. al, "Low-Redshift Quasars, et. al " Astronomical Journal, 89:958 (1984).]

(More on what happened to *Arp is told later in this chapter, under the section, Quasars.)

4 - Summarizing the Arp Discoveries. Evolutionists desperately cling to their out-dated Doppler redshift theory in order to salvage their "origin of matter" theories. Therefore they ignore Arp's monumental research which disproves their redshift theory.

Summarizing the work of *Halton Arp, of the Mount Wilson and Las Campanas Observatories in California, and now at the Max Planck Institute in Germany: He has spent 30 years conducting photographic research projects of stars and galaxies. His discoveries disprove the speed theory of the redshift. Among other things, he has found large numbers of celestial objects which are spatially connected in one way or another—yet which have totally different redshifts! This includes stars with galaxies, galaxies bridged with galaxies, and quasars bridged with galaxies. He has studied over 260 galaxies in more than 80 groups. In each he found significant redshift differences. After tabulating 24 main galaxies and 38 discordant redshift companions, he published a large scientific catalogue of them. His research stands as a powerful rebuke to those scientists who are determined to consider no research and no evidence, except that which favors their theories of matter and stellar evolution.

In addition to *Arp, other important scientists are also urging that energy-loss ("tired light") is the true explanation of the redshift. *Emil Wolf recently published an analysis of the mathematical basis for a non-Doppler redshift (Physical Review, March 31, 1986). *Amato, arriving at the same conclusion, explained that the result would be a much smaller universe:

"Thus, estimates of the size of the observable universe would shrink considerably—perhaps says Wolf, by a factor of 100 a more." —I. Amato, "Spectral Variation on an Universal Theme," Science News, 130:166 (1986).

And *Corliss declares that the tired light theory (the "energy-loss" redshift theory mentioned earlier) is highly significant; and concludes:

"P. LaViolette has compared the tired light cosmology b the standard [Big Bang-Doppler effect] model of an expanding universe on four different observational tests and has found that on each one the tired-light hypothesis was superior." —* W. Corliss, "Tired Light Revived," Science Frontiers, 47:2 (1986).

Throughout this book we will find that evolutionary theoreticians continually run from the facts and fear them. But those facts remain. Gradually, decade after decade, a great mountain of evidence disproving every type of evolution—universal, biological, and geological—is being piled up. Before we reach the last page of this book, we will have viewed a portion of that mountain.

*Arp summarizes part of his research studies:

"Redshift measures at 21 cm wavelength have been made on over 100 galaxies in more than 40 different groups with the Arecibo radio telescope. These groups generally consist of a large spiral galaxy with one or more companions. This list of galaxies is supplemented with over 160 galaxies in more than 40 groups with a dominant galaxy that is brighter than 11.8 mag. These latter galaxies are gathered from the literature and have redshifts generally accurate to better than +/- 8km s-1..

"This confirms the result which has emerged from every analysis made of physical groups of galaxies to date, namely that the companion galaxies are systematically redshifted with respect to the dominant galaxy. The most accurate redshifts available in the Local Group [the group of galaxies closest to us] and in the M81 group are physical companions have significantly higher redshifts than the central galaxies. Since neither the values of the redshifts nor the physical association of these companions is in doubt, it is suggested that these companions contain a component of nonvelocity redshift [non-speed theory redshift]." —*Halton Arp and *Jack W. Sulentic, "Analysis of Groups of Galaxies with Accurate Redshifts," Astrophysical Journal, 291:88(1985).

*Corliss summarizes the seriousness of the entire redshift problem:

"Redshift observations are, of course, crucial to our modern view of the evolution of the cosmos. Usually, it is assumed that. the observed redshifts are entirely due to the Doppler effect. If this assumption is incorrect, our cosmology [matter and stellar origins theories] must be drastically revised.

"At least five major classes of observations exist which tend to undermine the Doppler-effect assumption: (1) Laboratory measurements of spectral noninvariance; (2) Astronomical redshifts that can be correlated with large-scale mass distributions; (3) General comparisons between Doppler-redshift (expanding universe) cosmologies and cosmologies based on other redshift phenomena, such as 'tired light,' showing the inferiority of the Doppler hypothesis; (4) Observations of redshift differences between objects thought to be at the same distance; and (5) Observations of quantized redshifts. "—* W.R. Corliss, Stars, Galaxies, Cosmos (19,85), p. 148.

OTHER PHENOMENA INDICATING THE SPEED THEORY IS INCORRECT—There are other evidences that the speed theory of redshift is not correct. Three of these points will be mentioned here:

1 - Slight blueness of distant galaxies. According to evolutionary theory, the "younger" stars visually appear more blue than the "older" ones, which are redder. The stars with the highest redshifts are supposed to be the most distant from us, and therefore the youngest stars [most visually blue in color] of any stars in the skies. They should therefore be very blue but, instead, have the same general blue color as nearby blue stars! This fact totally violates the theory!

Clarification: The above paragraph speaks of "blues" and "reds" and may be confusing to some readers. The "blue" is referring to the visual color of the stars themselves, not the shift of their spectra toward the red or blue. According to the theory, (1) the visually bluest stars are the youngest. (2) The farthest stars ought therefore to be the youngest and extremely blue visually. (3) The farthest stars would be the very youngest because "we are looking backward in time" when we sight them; i.e., their starlight theoretically (if the redshift speed theory was correct, which it isn't) is billions of light years away—so we are seeing them as they looked billions of years ago when they were very young. (4) Stars with the most spectral redshift are supposed to be the farthest away. Therefore, (5) the spectra of the highest red-shift stars should visually appear to be the deepest blue.

In the following quotation, "z = 1" indicates a stellar velocity of 10 billion light years. That means that a star or galaxy which is "z = 1," is so heavily shifted toward the red, that it should be traveling at an impossible speed of 10 billion light years, IF the speed theory of redshift were correct. A "light year" is an astronomical unit of distance, and is equal to the distance that light travels through space in one year, which is approximately 5.878 trillion miles (nearly 6 trillion miles). A speed of 10 billion x 5.8 trillion miles per year would be immense!

"When we observe galaxies with redshifts greater than z = 1, the redshift-distance relationship tells us we are seeing stellar systems more than 10 billion light years away. Since the universe is thought to be 16-18 billion years old, these distant galaxies must be only 6-8 billion years old, for we are looking back into time. The anomaly here is that these young galaxies do not seem much bluer than nearby old galaxies, 16-18 billion years of age. One would expect the younger galaxies to be much hotter [bluer] and more active." —* W.R. Corliss, Stars, Galaxies, Cosmos (1985), p. 188.

2 - redshift distance multiples. A strange oddity has been discovered that does not at all agree with the speed theory, but could fit into some other redshift theories, such as "tired light."

Redshift data indicate that stars tend to clump at certain distances from us! These distances are multiples of 72 kilometers per second [44.7 miles per second]! Such a situation totally defies the speed theory of redshift! Is there a possible answer? One possibility would be that starlight loses energy as it travels ("tired light" theory), and this weakening is especially shown at multiples of 72 kps.

*Corliss discusses the problem, and notes that, although *Tifft's research is well documented, other astronomers are fearful to consider or verify it. To do so would weaken the speed theory of redshift. Corliss, himself a careful scientific researcher, concludes that, if true, this fact renders impossible both an expanding universe and the formation of stars by the gravitational lumping of gas.

"The clumping of galactic redshift differences at multiples and submultiples of about 72 kilometers per second [44.7 miles per second]. This phenomenon was initially found in galactic clusters, but it appears to extend to other groupings of celestial objects.

"A massive quantity of data has been accumulated for galactic clusters, galaxy pairs, stars, and other objects, primarily by W.G. Tifft and his colleagues. Although the catalogs of data on galaxies is not suspect, the analysis of those data in a way that supports redshift quantization has not been well-received. Supporting studies by other astronomers would generate more confidence in the reality of this phenomenon . .

"Redshift quantization is an anomaly of the highest order. The implications are profound: the expanding universe is contradicted and the formation of galaxies by gravitational attraction is denied." —*Op. cit., p. 195.

3 - Galactic Shape Factor. How can the shape of a galaxy affect its redshift? But this is so. That discovery indicates there is far more to redshifts than we had thought, and velocity has little or nothing to do with the shifts.

Spiral galaxies are disk-type, with outward rotating arms; elliptical galaxies have a distinctly different shape (a slightly squashed rounded shape). Galaxies are frequently found in clusters. Oddly enough, when ellipticals are in the same cluster with spirals (thus indicating that their distances from us are similar), the spirals will have a higher redshift, which should mean they are farther from us than the ellipticals! This, of course, cannot be true for both are together, and that fact itself strongly undermines the validity of the speed theory of redshift. In the following statements, "S galaxies" are spiral galaxies and E galaxies" are ellipticals.

"In clusters of galaxies the spirals tend to have higher redshifts than the E galaxies. "—*Halton Arp, "Three New Cases of Galaxies with Large Discrepant Redshifts, " Astrophysical Journal, 230:469 (1980).

"A reexamination of the galaxy redshift data in the Virgo I cluster reveals that the mean velocity of the (S) component [spiral galaxies within the galactic cluster] is significantly higher than that for the (E/L) component [elliptical galaxies within the cluster]." —*Jack W. Sulentic, "Redshifts in the Virgo Cluster, " Astrophysical Journal, 211159 (1977).

THE EXPANDING UNIVERSE THEORY—*Arp's discoveries disprove not only the speed theory of redshift, but also another theory based on it—*Edwin Hubble's "Hubble hypothesis" proposed earlier in this century, which suggests that objects outside our galaxy are receding from the earth at speeds proportional to their distance from us. That is the basis of the "expanding universe" theory. So, if Hubble's theory is incorrect, we would then have a smaller, non-expanding universe.

The "expanding universe" theory is based on the currently accepted, but very doubtful, interpretation of the redshift. That speed theory of the redshift requires that (1) all the stars in the universe are expanding outward, and (2) there are great distances between stars and galaxies. If, instead of the speed redshift theory, one or more of the three alternate explanations of the redshift were adopted, then the universe would be smaller, and it need not take so many light-years to travel across it. These three alternate explanations have been discussed above and are (1) gravitational redshift (gravity bends light, a fact predicted by *Einstein and now known to be true), (2) second-order Doppler redshift (the entire universe is rotating, and this affects the shift), and (3) energy-loss or tired light redshift (light loses energy as it travels).

PHOTONS SLOW DOWN—*Arp and his associates have found evidence that photons slow down in transit from stars to us. A photon is a single "piece" of moving starlight. The evolutionary theory assumes photons never slow down and are never shifted in their spectra toward the red by gravity. Arp has shown this assumption to be untrue.

These evolutionary theories are like a bunch of blocks stacked precariously on top of one another. The expanding universe theory is based on the speed redshift theory, which, in turn can only survive by ignoring evidence. Perched on top is the Big Bang theory, which desperately needs an expanding universe as evidence that the initial explosion occurred. Down below are little men running around feverishly, trying to find more blocks to pile on, hoping that it will help stabilize the tottering heap.

But there is evidence (by *Arp and others) that photons do slow down. Akridge, a careful scientist, looks at the photon:

"The concept of an expanding universe hinges on the astrophysicists' assumption that no change occurs to the galaxies' photons on their long, undisturbed trip from the galaxies to us." —*Russell Akridge, "The Expanding Universe Theory is Internally Inconsistent," in Creation Research Society Quarterly, June 1982, p. 56.

Then Akridge explains a related problem:

"A photon's energy loss is counted twice in the Big Bang expanding universe theory: [1) In the Big Bang theory, free photons must lose most of their original energy as they travel for vast times. [2] In the expanding universe theory, free photons must not lose any energy as they travel for vast times.

"A free photon cannot do both at the same time.

"If a free photon loses energy, the Big Bang theory may [or may not] be correct, but the universe is not expanding. However, if the universe is not expanding, free photons do not lose energy, because any photon loss is due to the expansion of the universe . .

"If either the Big Bang or the expanding universe is true, the other cannot be true. Yet, they are both parts of the same evolutionary scheme. Both must be true for either to be true. Therefore, the Big Bang expanding universe theory is false." —Op. cit., p. 58.

Among astronomers it is well-known that (1) there is considerable guesswork in determining actual distances by means of the redshift, and (2) there are other possible explanations for it. Actually, if the speed theory were correct, it would mean the universe is enormously large, with galaxies as much as 15 billion light years away from us!

ONLY ONE STELLAR DISTANCE MEASUREMENT IS RELIABLE—Distances to faraway stars, galaxies, and quasars are important in analyzing aspects of the Big Bang and other stellar theories. Yet, of the several techniques used by astronomers to measure star distances, there is only one reliable method; all of the other methods are either approximations or theoretical guesses. This is the parallax method, which can only be used on those stars which are nearest to us. It is accurate to within 10 percent. (Admittedly, even a 10 percent margin of error is a lot.)

The parallax method was first established in 1838 by Bessel. Since then, the distances to approximately 6,000 of the closest stars have been determined. The closest of these is Alpha Centauri which is only 4.3 light years away. Interestingly enough, the bright summer star, Vega, is only 27 light years distant.

There is no other accurate method of determining stellar distances, although several methods are employed for this purpose.

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