Evolution Encyclopedia Vol. 1

Chapter 1


(45) QUASARS—Quasars may hold the key to an understanding of the redshift. These are mysterious sources of distant light. Since their discovery in 1962, hundreds of them have been located. No one knows what they are, yet quasars show an astoundingly large redshift in their light. In accord with the current theory` of redshift, quasars are called the most distant objects in the universe.

But quasars raise a serious objection to the usual redshift theory: If they are so far away, how can their light even be seen! Because of this brightness problem, a number of astronomers are giving up the current redshift theory and saying that quasars probably are in our own galaxy.

VIOLATES INVERSE-SQUARE LAW—A basic law of optical physics is violated by evolutionary theory in regard to quasars. Using the speed theory of redshift as the basis for their efforts, scientists declare that there are quasars located at extreme distances—yet their visible light can be seen through optical telescopes! This could not possibly occur, for it would be a violation of the inverse-square law.

"Inverse-square law: the fact that, under perfectly transparent conditions, an object's brightness is inversely proportional to the square of its distance. A star at two light years is four times dimmer than it would be at one." —*Time-Life, Stars (1988), p. 137.

Speed and distance is not the answer to the redshift problem. In fact, we find that the current theory produces far more problems than it solves. Here is the story of the quasars:

16 PERCENT—In 1962, a mysterious object was found with radio-telescopes. Named 3C273, it had a spectrum that was unintelligible. (Its name comes from the fact that in a three-volume 1959 star catalogue published by Cambridge University, this star is number 273 in the third volume.) This peculiar object radiated most strongly in the far blue and ultraviolet fringes of the visible spectrum. Stranger still, it had only the slightest trace of hydrogen. Then, on February 5, 1963, a researcher, *Jesse Schmidt, was sitting in his office studying the puzzling. spectrum of 3C273, —when he recognized what the problem was: It had a radically large redshift of 16 percent! This meant that, if the current redshift theory is true (that the amount of shift is the speed with which the object is traveling away from us), this strange object was moving away from our planet at 16 percent of the speed of light, placing it at a massive distance of about 3 billion light years from earth!

But such a fact would present a most terrible problem to the astronomers: Given its distance, the small body would have had to be about a hundred times brighter than any other luminous or radio object in the sky, in order to be seen! Yes, a hundred times brighter—each of those 16 percent redshift quasars!

These unusual objects came to be called "quasars," meaning "quasi-stellar radio source;" a name indicating that it is a mystery. A quasar, then, is a "what is it?" a star, a galaxy, or what? Because of its theoretically massive distance and luminosity, the experts did not know how to classify it. At the present time 4,000 quasars have been identified. That is a lot of quasars.

200-300 PERCENT—Within two years after Schmidt broke the spectroscopic code of 3C273, quasars with redshifts of 200 and 300 percent were being announced! This would equal distances up to 12 billion light years, and recession speeds exceeding 90 percent of the speed of light! This was shattering news for the speed (Doppler) theory of the redshift.

Upon learning this, a surprising number of astronomers publicly gave up confidence in the current redshift theory. They said it would be impossible for any object to be so far away, be detected by our radio-telescopes, and afterward matched to images photographed by visual telescopes.

But, trying to hold onto the speed theory of the redshift, some astronomers said that quasars were being spewed out by our own Milky Way and other nearby galaxies. Yet this could not be, for no one had ever seen a blue-shifted quasar—one being hurled in our direction.

350-400 PERCENT—Since that time, the situation has become even worse: In 1973 a quasar was discovered with a redshift of 350 percent! Then, in 1986, the National Optical Astronomy Observatories in Tucson, Arizona, began using a new laser-scanning device to isolate ultra-high redshift quasars on photographic plates. Since then, NOAO has reported quasars with redshifts of more than 400 percent! If the current redshift theory were correct, those quasars would be 15 billion light-years away, and traveling outward at impossibly high speeds.

*Abel, a leader in the field of astronomical cataloguing, says there is no theoretical form of matter which could possibly fit the requirements of such great distances, high luminosity, and immense velocities.

"It is difficult, even theoretically, to construct a configuration of matter that fits the general characteristics of a QSS [quasar] and has so large a gravitational redshift." —*George Abell, Exploration of the Universe (1973), p. 409.

Here is a brief sketch of the discovery of these "4 redshifts" in quasars. (In scientific terminology, that stands for spectra shifted more than 400 percent toward the red):

"By the early 1980s, only one or two had been seen beyond a redshift of 3. There seemed to be a redshift limit beyond which quasars could not be seen . .

"Less than five years later, however, Pat Osmer would be among a host of observers vying for the distance record in the discovery of quasars. Between August 1986 and November 1989, ten quasars were found with redshifts greater than 4. Appropriately, Maarten Schmidt [discoverer of the first one] is a member of the team that has spotted half of them, including the most distant object ever seen—a quasar at redshift 4.73 [almost 500 percent!). Discovered in late 1989, quasar PC 1158+4635 is receding at a rate equivalent to a distance of nearly 14 billion light years.

" 'If the age of the universe is 15 billion years [as predicted by the Big Bang theorists], this quasar was emitting light just over 1 billion years after the Big Bang,' says Donald Schneider of Princeton, a co-discoverer with Schmidt and fellow astronomer James Gun, 'which places some serious constraints on theories of galaxy formation.' Suddenly, the theorists seemed to be running out of time for the standard schedule of events that were supposed to have led to the creation of galaxies. If those most distant quasars had somehow formed at an accelerated rate, they showed no sign of such behavior. As Schmidt put it, One of the interesting things about our redshift 4.73 quasar is how normal it is. Except for its great distance, it shows no significant differences from other quasars.' Debate continues as to the implications of these long-distance beacons... [and] perhaps, lend support to Arp's challenge." —*Time-Life, Cosmic Mysteries (1990), pp. 68-69.


Astronomers are beginning to realize that their hypothesis that redshifts are caused by stars running away from us at high speed—is on very shaky ground. Ettari explains the problem quite well:

"Since galactic distances are not obtainable [Since astronomers only measure distances to galaxies by the speed theory of redshift, and refuse to consider other possibilities], there is no way of knowing if the redshift in their spectra might not have some gravitational component. Moreover, there is also no way to forge a redshift/distance measurement scale for galaxies since there are no known mass/luminosity or mass/distance relationships with which to calibrate it. Thus, we see that little is actually known about redshifts and their relationship to the mass or distance of a galaxy or quasar. Therefore, the contention that these are Doppler effects remains unprovable. "Vincent A. Ettari, "Critical Thoughts and Conjectures Concerning the Doppler Effect and the Concept of an Expanding Universe-Part 1 " in Creation Research Society Quarterly, December 1988, p. 141-142.

More than anything else, quasars have made a laughing-stock of the current redshift theory, which in turn is supposed to be a key evidence that the Big Bang took place. About all the astronomers can do is to lamely declare that these quasars are so bright because each one may be equal in size to "100 million stars," and they have such a radical redshift because the quasars are shooting away from us at fantastically high speeds.

Any explanation will do, as long as it keeps the tottering evolutionary theories of stellar origins from failing in a heap.

GRAVITATIONAL RED SHIFTSThis is one of the three alternate causes of the redshift in starlight, which we earlier discussed. It was none other than *Albert Einstein who first suggested that redshifts in starlight were only the result of gravitational attraction by stellar masses they pass near.

"An atom absorbs or emits light of a frequency which is dependent on the potential of the gravitational field in which it is situated. "—*Albert Einstein, Relativity: the Special and General Theory (1961 edition), pp. 130-131.

As the light travels it would be pulled by gravitational fields of neighboring stars and galaxies, and would thus be skewed slightly toward the red end of the spectrum.

"A strong gravitational field at the source of light will cause a redshift." —* "A Quasar that's Far Away" in Science News, 110 (1976), p. 54.

"Some astronomers at once noted that the bigger the galaxy, [the larger the gravitational field,] the bigger the redshift, and the greater the speed. "—*R.A. Gallant, The Nature of the Universe (1966), p. 58.

However, the entire theory of explosion cosmology (via a Big Bang, oscillating universe, etc.) is partly dependent on a Doppler-effect (speed theory) redshift. So it is being doggedly adhered to, in spite of the fact that the evidence is mounting that such a theory is utterly impossible.

EIGHT TIMES FASTER THAN THE SPEED OF LIGHT—Three quasars have been found that which, according to the speed theory of redshift, are moving FASTER than the speed of light!

"An object that goes faster than light is about as welcome to physical scientists as a real live ghost would be to the American Humanist Association. Yet there are at least three quasars that are flying away from each other at speeds greater than that of light. [!] The response of most astronomers is that it is just an appearance and must somehow be explained away. The most popular explanations to date seem a bit contrived, however . . the faster-than-light phenomena include apparent velocities up to 8c." —*"Computer enhanced Photographs of Galaxies, " in Sky and Telescope 53 (1977), p. 1702. [''C" is the "Hubble constant"—the speed of light; "8c" would be a speed eight times faster than the speed of light.]

That is eight times faster than the speed of light! If the speed theory of redshift be true, then some of these quasars are traveling eight times faster than light! Astronomers know this is an impossibility, yet their speed theory of redshift requires it. But they dare not abandon that concept, for it would ruin their Big Bang theory. As of the latter part of 1990, 30 (thirty) of these "faster-than-light" quasars have been found.

"Some of this [quasar] material is extremely puzzling to astronomers, because it appears to be moving faster than light (According to Relativity Theory, light is the fastest-moving stuff in the universe. Thus the faster-than-light-quasars—or super-luminary quasars—shouldn't exist. But they do.

"It is thought that there is some illusion with these bizarre objects. . It may be an illusion, but its exact nature isn't yet understood.

"There are 30 or so known super-luminary quasars."—*Star Date radio broadcast, Tuesday, November 6, 1990.

In a desperate attempt to save their special theory of redshift, astronomers are even willing to change the speed of light so it will conform to the super-fast quasars! The speed of light, based on the "Hubble constant," has been carefully worked out, checked and double-checked for many years now. The "Hubble constant" is a key mathematical factor in computing the speed of light. Ettari expresses his shock that astronomers would be willing to abandon a basic mathematical constant in order to salvage the dreamy explosion theory of origins.

"How can a branch of science stand when its most fundamental constant, the Hubble constant, is constantly being changed? The admission of the above article is that we have no idea as to the true relationships between redshift and velocity or distance, and that the computed distances and speeds are totally unreliable.

"Their speeds could be halved or doubled depending on the prevailing opinion as to what the value of the Hubble 'constant' is. Moreover, an increase of 100 percent in the Hubble constant would decrease the computed age of the universe by 50 percent. If objects with still higher redshifts are found, the age of the universe could be decreased (to 10,000 years, perhaps?)." —Vincent A. Ettari, "Critical Thoughts and Conjectures Concerning the Doppler Effect and the Concept of an Expanding Universe-Part 1 " in Creation Research Society Quarterly, December 1988, p. 145 (italics ours).

LIGHT, MATTER, AND GRAVITY—Some may suggest that light and matter could not possibly have any effect on one another, and that evolutionists are right in declaring that the redshift in light from distant places is caused not by matter drag, but solely by movement of the stars away from us. Yet it is a known fact that gravity from the sun actually bends light rays from stars coming toward us. Other relationships have been noted above. In addition consider this:

Does matter apply gravitational pull on lightas if it too were matter? Well, what about the fact that it is now known that light applies weight on matteras though light were matter!

"If a set of fine scales is arranged so that one scale is kept dark, and light is allowed to fall on the other, the lighted scale will sink slowly. Light has 'weight.' The pressure of light on the Earth's surface is calculated as two pounds per square mile." —*Isaac Asimov, Asimov's Book of Facts (1979), p. 330.

When the near-sighted Hubble space telescope was sent up in 1990, such things as solar wind had already been accounted for in advance, But within a few days scientists found they could not keep the telescope still—for the weight of sunlight touching its vanes was slowly moving it!

Because light has weight, it can be affected by gravity. Therefore the gravitational theory of redshift would definitely be applicable.

GETTING RID OF THE OPPOSITION—The controversy has grown intense.

On one side are the "Big Bangers" fighting to hold onto their theory. In order to do so, they cling tightly to (1) their background radiation explanation, which does not agree with a number of facts, and (2) to their speed theory explanation of the redshift of starlight, which in turn requires postulating fantastic theories about an exploding universe, 14 billion light-year distant quasars emitting light so bright we can record them in our telescopes, and horrible black holes. None of those three theories would be necessary if the speed theory of redshift was discarded.

On the other side are competent astronomers, led by *Halton C. Arp, who have found many instances in which the speed theory could not possibly apply. Arp even compiled a large atlas containing many of them!

In desperation, the evolutionists arranged that Arp be relieved of his employment, so that he could no longer use the two largest U.S.-based visual telescopes: Mount Wilson and Mount Palomar.

"No matter what they might turn out to be, quasars attracted attention most of all because of their apparent extreme distance from Earth. If they are as far away as redshift measurements seem to indicate, then they are remnants of the universe's very earliest eras and would allow theorists, in effect, to travel back to those epochs.

"Not all astronomers see quasars as time machines, however. A small though vocal minority has argued that since some supposedly distant quasars seem physically associated with relatively nearby galaxies, the redshift rule may not apply universally to all types of extragalactic objects. Striking as it did at one, of the central pillars of modern cosmology—the redshift evidence of an expanding universe—this hypothesis touched off what has been characterized as one of the most bitter episodes in the history of astronomy.

"At the center of the debate is Halton Arp, the same astronomer who drew up an atlas of peculiar galaxies. Indeed, it was while investigating these extragalactic aberrations that Arp came upon what he believed was evidence for direct ties between some galaxies and quasars. Several Arp photographs show faint bridges apparently linking nearby galaxies with supposedly more distant quasars. Arp therefore argued that the high redshifts of these quasars were caused by factors other than distance . .

"The astronomical community reacted harshly and not entirely rationally. Most astronomers dismissed Arp's views out of hand, suggesting that the supposed connections were optical illusions produced by chance alignments. Some even went so far as to impugn his integrity by remarking that most of the evidence of physical associations between objects of different redshifts came from photographs produced by Arp himself. [In each instance, he gave exact locations; the dissidents could verify the evidence if they had wished to do so.]

"A few eminent supporters, including the renowned astrophysicist Geoffrey Burbidge, made impassioned pleas for everyone to keep an open mind, but to no avail. In 1983, Arp was to suffer the indignity of being barred from the tools of his trade. Caltech's telescope allocation committee decided that his line of research was not worthy of support and that he would receive no more time for this work at the telescopes of the Mount Wilson and Palomar observatories.

"Arp refused to take up more conventional studies simply to please the committee; instead, he chose to leave Caltech for a position at the Max Planck Institute in Munich, where he continued to pursue his ideas. Referring to his abrupt and ignoble ouster, Burbidge later wrote, 'No responsible scientist I know, including many astronomers who were strongly opposed to Arp's thesis, believes justice was served.'"—*Time Life, Cosmic Mysteries (1990), pp. 67-68.

QUASAR SUMMARY—Here are several points from this section In regard to the quasar question, as it relates to the red-shift:

1- A theory about background radiation and the speed theory of red-shift is all the evolutionists have to support their Big Bang theory. Yet the existence of quasars is a powerful objection to their red-shift theory. Because the spectra of quasars are shifted so dramatically Into the red, if the speed theory were correct, they would have to be located vast distances from us—billions of miles beyond any other objects in the sky. Yet their visible light can still be seen in optical telescopes, as though most of them were not much farther away than stars in Andromeda, the closest galaxy to us!

2 - NOAO (National Optical Astronomy Observatories In Tucson, AZ) has reported sighting quasars with red-shifts of more than 400 percent! Such quasars would, according to the speed theory, be 15 billion light-years distant, and traveling outward at impossibly high speeds! One quasar has a red-shift of 4.73 (473 percent shift; its name is PC 1158 + 4635), and appears to be a very normal sighted stellar object.

3 - Three quasars have been found which, according to the speed theory of red-shift, are moving faster than the speed of light!

4 - In a desperate effort to save their speed theory, theorists want to change the "Hubble constant." That is the speed of light! They want to change the speed of light in order to salvage their speed theory, in turn to save their expanding universe and Big Bang theories. All scientific facts are to be accepted, denied, or changed in accordance with the effect they will have on evolutionary theories.

5 -*Albert Einstein was the first to suggest that starlight was gravitationally affected by passing stars. That would result in its spectrum being skewed toward the red end. Yet evolutionists adamantly deny any possibility of a causative agent for the red-shift other than speed.

6 - A strong gravitational field at the source of the starlight will initially skew it toward the red. It has been noted that the bigger the galaxy, the larger the red-shift.

7 - No one has ever seen a blue-shifted stellar light spectrum. This is another indication that gravity or tired light is responsible for the slowing of the starlight. If the speed theory alone was correct, then there ought to be a star out there somewhere which is moving toward us!

8 - It is a known fact that gravity from our own sun bends light rays from stars coming toward us.

9 - Not only does matter apply gravity to light, but another evidence in favor of the gravitational theory of red-shift is the fact that light applies weight to matter. Light falling on balanced vanes will turn them.


THREE SPECIAL POINTS—if the Big Bang theory were true, it should predict four things: [1] There should be no stars or galaxies at all! Physical laws would indicate that the gas from the Big Bang would flow evenly outward and never form any spherical bodies of any kind. [2] If it were possible for them to have formed out of the outwardly-moving gaseous wind, the stars would only be found at the outer edges of the universe, not evenly scattered throughout it. [3] Large amounts of antimatter should strike the earth continually, and from only one direction—the direction where the Big Bang explosion occurred. [4] Background radiation should enter our atmosphere continually, and from that same single direction. [5] Stars in the universe should be moving outward from the original point where the Big Bang explosion took place.

For additional information see the appendix, "1- Scientists Oppose the Explosion Theory," at the end of this chapter. You will there find statements by scientists which oppose the theories of the Big Bang, and stellar and planetary evolution.

The Big Bang theory is presented to the public as though all science stood behind it, when in reality confusion, contradictions, and discord reigns among scientists in regard to it. The same is true for the other cosmologies, or theories of the origin of matter and stars.

In addition to the most popular theory of the origin of the universe, the Big Bang, there are three other primary evolutionary theories of how everything began.


ERRORS IN THE THEORY—Alternate theories to a Big Bang origin of the universe, include the "steady-state" cosmology. This idea (also called the "continuous creation" theory) was initiated and first publicized by *Fred Hoyle, a British astronomer, in 1948. It teaches that matter never had a beginning. According to the concept, in the space between galaxies, new matter is said to be quietly but continually appearing out of nothing! It just pops into existence in the form of hydrogen! As simple as that.

In 1948, *Fred Hoyle, working with *Hermann Bondi and *Thomas Gold, proposed the "steady state universe" as an alternative to the Big Bang, This theory tries to unite the idea of a eternally continuing universe with continually self-creating matter, with the red-shift-required expanding universe theory,

"At the forefront of the Steady State theorists was a brash young Cambridge University astronomer and mathematician named Fred Hoyle. Hoyle, barely into his thirties at the time, did not as a rule shy away from absolute statements. The general properties of the universe remain constant, he maintained; it has always been, and will always be, very much as it is now. To account for the expansion discerned by Hubble, the Steady State theory offered a rather magical solution. As the galaxies recede from each other, new matter, in the form of hydrogen atoms, is created in the space between them; ultimately, this matter coalesces into new galaxies." *Peter Pocock and, *Pat Daniels, Galaxies, p. 114 [italics ours].

Just as *George Gamow, the great promoter of the Big Bang theory, later became a science fiction writer, so * Fred Hoyle, after pushing the steady state universe theory for a time, went into science fiction writing also. This would be understandable; since both theories themselves are nothing more than science fiction.

"Hoyle demonstrated a real genius for publicity. He explained his ideas on a widely-heard radio series and then published an enormously popular book, The Nature of the Universe, in 1950. His efforts won wide acceptance for the theory among the general public, if not among astronomers, who generally held to the Big Bang." —*Op. cit., p. 115.

In the early 1960s, Hoyle turned his attention to other enterprises, including the writing of a series of popular science-fiction novels.

According to Hoyle's theory, galaxies are continually disappearing while new ones are appearing, and matter is continually inventing itself out of nothing. At the same time, other matter—entire constellations—are disappearing. All this is contrary to scientific observation and analysis, yet Hoyle called his theory a "law" of nature:

"In the case of a continuous origin of matter on the other hand, the creation must obey a definite law, a law that has just the same sort of logical status as the laws of gravitation, of nuclear physics, of electricity and magnetism." —*Fred Hoyle, Frontiers of Astronomy (1955), pp. 317318.

The idea was so riddled with flaws that years later Hoyle, himself, finally gave up the theory, and in a public statement said the evidence to the contrary was too great: the universe had to be created!

But unfortunately, many of his followers did not change views when he did. The Steady State cosmology is held by many scientists today, although when background radiation was discovered, many jumped back on the Big Bang bandwagon. But they did so in spite of the fact that background radiation turned out to be multidirectional, and thus no evidence of an earlier Big Bang.

Another British scientist, made this comment about Hoyle's theory:

"So far as I can judge, the authors of this new cosmology are primarily concerned about the great difficulty that must face all [cosmological theory] systems that contemplate a changing universe—namely, how can we conceive it to have begun? They are not content to leave this question unanswered until further knowledge comes; all problems must be solved now. It seems to them better to suppose that there was no beginning and will be no ending to the material universe, and therefore, tacitly assuming that the universe must conform to their tastes, they declare that this must have been the case. "*Herbert Dingle, "Science and Modern Cosmology," in Science, October 1, 1954, p. 519.

* Hoyle's Steady State theory, like the other cosmologies (Big Bang, Oscillating Universe, etc.), is pure imagination.

"We are told that matter is being continually created, but in such a way that the process is imperceptible—that is, the statement cannot be disproved. When we ask why we should believe this, the answer is that the "perfect cosmological principle" requires it. And when we ask why we should accept this principle, the answer is that the fundamental axiom of science requires it. This we have seen to be false, and the only other answer that one can gather is that the principle must be true because it seems fitting to the people who assert it. With all respect, I find this inadequate." —*Herbert Dingle, "Science and Modern Cosmology," Science, October 1, 1954, p. 515.

"Contrary to popular belief, not a single star, planet, or galaxy has ever been seen forming spontaneously out of cosmic debris. Such imaginary evolutionary processes do not even work on paper!" —George Mulfinger, "Degeneration Processes in the Cosmos," Bible-Science Newsletter, September 15, 1968.

You may recall two earlier facts discussed in this chapter: (1) The *Rubin discovery that gas in-between the island universes is composednot of pure hydrogen as required by the Big Bang theory,but also of a variety of heavy elements. (2) The fact that hydrogen cannot change into the heavy elements because of a nuclear gap at 5 and 8, and it can only change into helium in the nuclear heat within stars. Those two facts, taken together, disprove *Hoyle's steady state universe theory, which teaches that all the gas in extra-galactic space could only be hydrogen or helium; hydrogen coming into existence out of nothing, and some helium, later formed from the hydrogen.

In 1965, *Fred Hoyle himself abandoned the steady state theory. He had been the principle person urging it for years, but on September 6, 1965, at a meeting of the British Association for Advancement of Science, Hoyle flat-out stated that there were such serious problems with the theory that he was giving it up. Here are five of the reasons he gave for abandoning it:

1 -Radio astronomy counts by *Martin Ryle and his associates indicate a density of radio sources too dense to be compatible with the steady-state theory.

2 - Red-shift measurements of 15 quasars indicate that the universe previously was denser than at present, a possibility not agreeable with the theory.

3 - A background microwave radiation [wavelength] of 7 cm (2.76 inches) has been picked up by *Penzias and *Wilson at Bell Lab. This amount disagrees with both the Big Bang and steady state theories.

4 - Helium-to-hydrogen ratios for stars and gaseous nebulas within our own galaxy have been measured, and there is far too much helium content. This fact flies in the face both of Big Bang and steady state theorizations. Such high helium ratios cannot be accounted for by thermonuclear production of helium from hydrogen.

5 - The structure of elliptical galaxies is more satisfactorily explained as a result of expansion from a highly dense state, than by any condensation process suggested by the Big Bang or steady state theories.

In view of these findings, Fred Hoyle announced he was abandoning the steady state theory. Elsewhere in this book, you will find many other research findings and quotations by *Fred Hoyle dealing with the primitive environment, DNA, protein, natural selection, mutations, and a number of other crucial topics, such are archaeopteryx. When working down-to-earth, he has been a much more careful researcher than when his head is up in the stars.

"The static (steady] state, universe concept is now out of favor for several good reasons, one being that no matter how evolutionist cosmologists may twist and turn, there is no getting past the second law of thermodynamics—if the universe were of infinite age then it would have run down infinitely long ago.

"Its main proponent, Fred Hoyle long ago abandoned the idea and he expresses much cynicism about the barren state of cosmology today. Steidl points out that it is no wonder that mechanistic theories of the origin and structure of the universe do not work because non-theistic evolutionist astronomers dogmatically rule out the most important element before they start: the possibility of a Creator Supreme Being." —A. W. Mehlert, book review, in Creation Research Society Quarterly, June 1987, p. 24.

This imaginative theory is just that: a product of imagination. It has never been observed to happen and there is no evidence that it occurs.


ERRORS IN THE THEORYThis theory says that when the universe finally runs down, another Big Bang will start it going again.

Also called "eternal oscillations," this concept was developed and promoted by *George Gamow, and is an extension of the Big Bang theory. It teaches that after each Big Bang outward explosion and formation of stars and planets, at a later time all matter contracts into a single tiny point, which then explodes again in another Big Bang. The main difference is that the initial explosion (Big Bang) is supposed to have been of nothing erupting into matter; the later ones are theorized to be produced by matter packed into a point, and then exploding back into matter again.

Although not able to tell you how long ago your house was built, Gamow can tell you that 80 billion years after the last Big Bang another explosion will occur.

"In one [theory, the Big Bang], the universe is created, somehow, ten or twenty billion years ago and expands forever, the galaxies mutually receding until the last one disappears over our cosmic horizon. . In the other, the oscillating universe, the Cosmos has no beginning and no end, and we are in the midst of an infinite cycle of cosmic deaths and rebirths." —*Carl Sagan, Cosmos (1980), p. 259.

Knowledgeable scientists do not really know how the first Big Bang could have occurred, and they have no idea how another could occur later, the second time with matter to begin with. Frankly, we have here one desperate theory piled onto another.

"Such speculation is sometimes referred to as the oscillating theory of the universe, but it is not really a theory, for we know of no mechanism that can produce another big bang. "—*George Abell, Exploration of the Universe (1982), p. 648.

As Pitman explains, it is an ongoing struggle to work out these strange theories:

"(a) The universe always existed. (b) The universe sprang into existence when, at the beginning of time, nothing nowhere for no reason exploded (Big Bang theory). Attempts have been made to reconcile (a) and (b); for example, postulating an 'oscillating universe' which disappears in a 'black hole' and reappears as a 'white hole.' "—Michael Pitman, Adam and Evolution, 229. (It has been theorized that a matter-absorbing black hole might eventually "turn itself inside out" and produce a "white hole" belching out matter.)

After pushing the Big Bang, *George Gamow, the physicist and science-fiction writer, led out in developing it into the "oscillating universe" theory. According to this idea, the universe alternates between expansion and contraction, and the last one was merely the most recent Big Bang. The present expansion will be followed by a contraction. The galaxies will rush in and stop at a common point, collide, and begin a new Big Bang.

That point of collision, with good science fiction magic, will be about the size of an atom, and within it will be all the stars and galaxies of the universe! Then it is supposed to explode. Every 80 billion years a new explosion cycle is supposed to begin.

Gamow, with his convincing details about something he really knows nothing about, explains how the last Big Bang occurred:

"Thus we conclude that our universe has existed for an eternity of time, that until about five billion years ago it was collapsing uniformly from a state of infinite rarefaction; that five billion year; ago it arrived at a state of maximum compression in which the density of all its matter may have been as great as that of the particles packed in the nucleus of an atom (i.e., 100 million million times the density of water), and that the universe is now on the rebound, dispersing irreversibly toward a state of infinite rarefaction." —George Gamow, "Modern Cosmology, " in Scientific American editors, The New Astronomy (1955), p. 23.

On the next page, Gamow admitted that the preconceived objective of his theory was an imaginative attempt to dovetail his theory into that of the Big Bang. He said he wanted to come up with an eternal universe, tie it to a Big Bang, and then date it at 5 billion years to agree with the overall scheduling of the Big Bang theory.

1 - Running out of hydrogen. —Robert Jastrow, founder and director of NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Studies, and astronomy professor at Columbia University, explained the impossibility of the theory by noting that when hydrogen is used up, there is no way it can be recycled. When the hydrogen is gone, the universe Is dead. There are no repetitive cycles of matter renewing itself.

"This beautiful theory allows the Universe to go on forever in a timeless cycle of death and rebirth, but for one disturbing fact. Fresh hydrogen is the essential ingredient in the plan; it is the main source of the energy by which stars shine, and it is also the source of all the other elements in the Universe. The moment a star is born it begins to consume some of the hydrogen in the Universe, and continues to use up hydrogen until it dies. Once hydrogen has been burned within that star and converted to heavier elements, it can never be restored to is original state. Minute by minute and year by year, as hydrogen is used up in the stars, the supply of this element in the Universe grows smaller." *Robert Jastrow, God and the Astronomers (1978), p. 109.

All of the weaknesses of the Big Bang theory apply to the eternal oscillations theory of universal origins, which is but an extension of it.

Once again we have the same problems we had with the Big Bang and steady state universe—. (1) matter out of nothing, (2) violations of natural law, and (3) accidental origins of stars, planets, moons, and the complicated inter-connected orbital systems to be seen throughout the universe.

2 - Stop and reverse. But added to this is the peculiar point that Gamow says the universe is infinite and all matter within it is expanding, and then, every so many billion years, inexplicably reverses its direction and contracts! Why would matter that is supposedly expanding infinitely outward toward infinity—stop and change directions?

If matter from the Big Bang has been expanding outward for 20 billion years, why should it eventually stop, reverse gears, and go back inward again? What would draw it inward, since it is all moving outward at great velocity? Add to this the fact that Gamow says it is expanding outward in an "infinite universe," so it has no barrier to slow or stop it. The center of gravity would by that time be on the perimeters of the universe, not at its center!

3 - Leaving its gravitational field. *Gamow says the original Big Bang is expanding outward "in an infinite universe." What then would slow, stop, and reverse it? The center of gravity would be in the outer perimeters of the universe. Why would matter want to reverse and move back away from the gravitational field?

4 - Not enough matter. The only way the universe could collapse inward would be if there were ten times as much matter in the universe as there now is. Research studies have shown that there simply is not enough matter in the universe to produce such an inward collapse.

Jastrow mentions this as another reason why the oscillating universe theory cannot be true:

"The density of matter . . is more than ten times too small to bring the expansion of the Universe to a halt." —Robert Jastrow, God and the Astronomers (1978), pp. 121-122.

Mathematical calculations indicatethere is not enough matter in the universe to cause it to cease any possible outward expansion, and begin pushing inward.

5 - Getting to the point. After reversing direction and rushing inward, all stars and galaxies are then supposed to EXACTLY collide—and then melt into a single miniature point! What a ridiculous concept. Aim a hundred rifles inward to a common center; will they all hit one another, stop when they do it, and form a single atom smaller than one of them? Why would inward-imploding matter go to a single point and stop there? It would simply move on out past that point.

If all that enormous quantity of stellar material, stretching as it does across the vast reaches of space, were hurled toward a central area, some of it would collide and break into particles and rebound outward. Other objects would fly past each other and continue on into space.. None of it would glue itself together, and then shrink in size (!) to the size of an atom!

It would NOT implode to a single atomic dot! That is fiction writing in the extreme. Does science fiction writing unfit men for intelligent analysis of straight-forward reality?


ERRORS IN THE THEORY—As soon as one theory weakens, another is put on the drawing board. The latest is the "inflationary universe" theory.

In a desperate attempt to cling to a non creationist position on the origin of matter, this new idea teaches that the universe (Including all space and time) began as a single Infinitesimal particle! No one has yet figured out where that first particle came from, or how all time and space happened to get jammed into it. But, at any rate, it first decided to swell to a grapefruit size object, paused there for a time, and then blew up. Prior to reaching its first five inches [12.7 cm] in diameter, it was quite cold and in its "cold big whoosh" stage. After achieving 5 inches in size, it—with all time and space capsuled within it, then entered the "hot big bang" stage—and blew up, traveling outward, carrying all space, time, and matter with it as it went. Somewhere in the process, matter and energy congealed into reality. The scientists are still working out the details on how that happened.

Where did that first particle come from? No one knows. Two of the originators of the "inflationary universe" theory are now toying with the idea that the first "infinitesimal particle" initially expanded itself out of an ever-smaller point—which itself just appeared out of nothing.

"It is then tempting to go one step further and speculate that the entire universe evolved from literally nothing." —*Allan H. Guth and *Paul J. Steinhardt, "The Inflationary Universe, " in Scientific American, May 1984, p. 128.

The flaws In the Big Bang apply to this theory, plus the problem that the initial origin of matter is not explained.

For additional information, see the quotation supplement, "4 - Problems for Origin of Matter and Origin of Universe Theories, " at the end of this chapter.


WORTHLESS THEORIES—These peculiar theories of the origin of the universe really beg the question. They do not really explain origins, much less processes and results. They just provide a fairy tale to capture and hold the attention of people who would otherwise be searching for the truth.

Either separately or combined, the Big Bang and oscillating universe theories do not explain how a supposedly super-dense collection of either vacuum or matter could gather together. They do not explain how nothing can pack itself together. The steady-state theory claims that throughout the universe, empty space is continually changing into hydrogen. But there is no evidence that this is occurring.

*Isaac Asimov, one of the world's leading evolutionary science writers of our century, nicely sums up the kind of confusing vagaries that he and his fellow evolutionists prefer in regard to the origin of the universe:

"Where did the substance of the universe come from?. . If 0- + 1 + (-1), then something which is 0 might just as well become 1 and -1. Perhaps in an infinite sea of nothingness, globs of positive and negative energy in equal-sized pairs are constantly forming, and after passing through evolutionary changes, combine once more and vanish. We are in one of these globs in the period of time between nothing and nothing, and wondering about it." —*Isaac Asimov, "What is Beyond the Universe?" in Science Digest, April 1970, p. 69.

According to evolutionary theory, "Between nothing and nothing" is what life is all about.

None of us is as close to the problems Involved here as is * Fred Hoyle, one of the leading astronomers of our time, and he has already abandoned the Big Bang theory.

Weisskopf, another influential astronomer puts it this way:

"No existing view of the development of the cosmos is completely satisfactory, and this includes the standard model [the Big Bang], which leads to certain fundamental questions and problems."—*Victor Weisskopf, "The Origin of the Universe, " in American Scientist, October 1983, p. 474.

"Dietrick Thompson comments:

"Coincidence of prediction and observation made the big bang seem the most plausible of cosmological theories. From plausibility it became predominant and then virtually an orthodoxy . . But now its decade of total dominance may be starting to close"—*Dietrick V. Thomsen, "Cosmology Against the Grain, "in Science News, August 26, 1978, p. 138.

Along with the Big Bang, many astronomers are now abandoning the oscillating universe theory.

"We now appreciate that, because of the huge entropy generated in our universe, far from oscillating, a closed universe can only go through one cycle of expansion or contraction." —*S.A. Bludman, "Thermodynamics and the End of the Closed Universe, " in Nature, March 22, 1984, p. 322.

VIOLATES NATURAL LAW—These theories about the origin of matter and stars do not explain processes; they only propose theories.

They do not present observed or observable facts; they only provide pat answers. There is no doubt but that science fiction is a wonderful solver of difficulties; it simply ignores them.

For example, how did the laws of nature come into existence? Natural law is inexorable, yet it governs matter and energy while standing apart from both. Evolutionists assume that natural laws appeared out of nothing by chance, as with everything else. But nothing in the universe is haphazard; everything has a purpose; everything was planned. And everything required high-level intelligence and power to produce.

The First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics are repeatedly violated by the very essence of these theories. The Second Law of Thermodynamics, which is the basis for * Bludman's objection, quoted above, will be discussed later in chapter 25, The Laws of Nature.

It may seem unbelievable, after having read in this chapter about a hundred reasons why the Big Bang theory is wrong, —but this one point of the Second Law of Thermodynamics is more powerful than nearly all other reasons—why ALL theories of matter and stellar origins and evolution are totally incorrect and impossible. Chaos can never change itself randomly into cosmos; disorganized matter can never transform itself by accident into the highly organized elements with their whirling atomic particles, or into stars circling one another with thoroughly precision and balanced orbits. And it can never change mud and seawater Into plants and animals.

Entire books have been written on the inviolability of the Second Law of Thermodynamics. In this present set of books, it fills an entire chapter. For that reason we will not discuss it in detail here.

This one law of physics—all by itself—solidly refutes the possibility of any and all evolution of matter, stars, or living species.

For additional information, see the quotation supplement, " 2 - The Problem of Entropy, " at the end of this chapter.

THE SORRY STATE UNIVERSE—It is not easy to live day by day with the desolation that evolutionists face as they view the universe. Two evolutionary scientists speak frankly to the point:

"There is a deep compulsion to believe that the entire universe, including all the apparently concrete matter that assails our senses, is in reality only a frolic of convoluted nothingness, that in the end of the world will turn out to be a sculpture of pure emptiness, a self-organized void." —*Paul Davies, Superforce (1984).

"It is very hard to realize that this all is just a tiny part of an overwhelmingly hostile universe. It is even harder to realize that this present universe has evolved from an unspeakably unfamiliar early condition, and faces a future extinction of endless cold or intolerable heat. The more the universe seems comprehensible (via the big bang), the more it also seems pointless." —*Steve Weinberg, The First Three Minutes (1977).

"The effort to understand the universe is one of the very few things that lifts human life above the level of farce, and gives it some of the grace of tragedy." —*Steve Weinberg, The First Three Minutes (1977).

THREE SCIENTISTS SUMMARIZE—One scientist carefully summarizes the confusion of it all, and crowds it into one little sentence:


"Our Universe had its physical origin as a quantum fluctuation of some pre-existing true vacuum, or state of nothingness."—*Edward P. Tryon, "What Made the World?" in New Scientist, March 8, 1984, p. 16.

Another scientist, a leading astronomer who spent his time studying the stars instead of speculative writings, said this:

"A scientific study of the universe has suggested a conclusion which may be summed up . . in the statement that the universe appears to have been designed by a pure mathematician."—Sir James Jeans, The Mysterious Universe, p.140.

Another astronomer, writing more recently, put it this way:

"It seems to be one of the fundamental features of nature that fundamental physical laws are described in terms of a mathematical theory of great beauty and power, needing quite a high standard of mathematics for one to understand it... One could perhaps describe the situation by saying that God is a mathematician of a very high order, and He used very advanced mathematics in constructing the universe."—*Scientific American, May 1963, p. 53.

You have just completed

The Origin of Matter Part 4


The Origin of the Stars