Evolution Encyclopedia Vol. 3 



Darwin's theory of evolution was the "scientific justification" for the crazed, blood-thirsty ideas of the Nazis.

"The Nazi leaders certainly used evolutionary theory to provide scientific justification for their barbaric actions . . Adolf Hitler was not alone among the Nazi leaders in his idolatrous worship of evolution. Heinrich Himmler, head of the Gestapo, stated that 'the law of nature must take its course in the survival of the fittest.' In fact, all of the Nazi leaders were committed both to evolution and Germanic racism, as were most German scientists and industrialists during those dark days." -H.M. Morris, Long War Against God (1989), p. 78.

An avowed evolutionist explains that *Hitler systematically murdered millions because it agreed with Darwinian objectives:

"Hitler [was] devoutly convinced that evolution produces the only real basis for a national policy . . The means he adopted to secure the destiny of his race and people were organized slaughter, which has drenched Europe in blood.. Such conduct is highly immoral as measured by every scale of ethics, yet Germany justifies it. It is consonant with tribal or evolutionary morality. Germany has reverted to the tribal past, and is demonstrating to the world, in their naked ferocity, the methods of evolution." -*Sir Arthur Keith, Evolution and Ethics (1947), p. 28.

Azar makes these two comments:

"This doctrine of racial supremacy Hitler took at face value.. He accepted evolution much as we today accept Einsteinian relativity." -Larry Azar, Twentieth Century in Crisis (1990), p. 180.

"Sixty-three million people would be slaughtered in order to obey the evolutionary doctrine that perishing is a law of nature." -Op. cit., p. x

A Jewish biology professor at Purdue University, writing for the Association of Orthodox Jewish Scientists, said this:

"I don't claim that Darwin and his theory of evolution brought on the holocaust; but I cannot deny that the theory of evolution, and the atheism it engendered, led to the moral climate that made a holocaust possible." -*Edward Simon, "Another Side to the Evolution Problem," Jewish Press, January 7, 1983, p. 248.

*Hitler's fascination with Darwinian thinking went back to his childhood.

"Adolf Hitler's mind was captivated by evolutionary thinking-probably since the time he was a boy. Evolutionary ideas-quite undisguisedly at the basis of all that is worst in Mien Kampf and in his public speeches. A few quotations, taken at random, will show how Hitler reasoned . . 'He who would live must fight, he who does not wish to fight in this world where permanent struggle is the law of life, has not the right to exist." -Robert E. D. Clark Darwin: Before and After (1948), p. 115.

Even in defeat, *Hitler held to his unwavering faith in Darwin's ideas.

"Hitler believed in struggle as a Darwinian principle of human life that forced every people to try to dominate all others; without struggle they would rot and perish . . Even in his own defeat in April 1945, Hitler expressed his faith in the survival of the stronger and declared the Slavic peoples to have proven themselves the stronger." -*P. Hoffmann, Hitler's Personal Security (1979), p. 264.

*Benito Mussolini gained strength and courage from Darwin's books to carry out his blood-thirsty deeds.

"Mussolini's attitude was completely dominated by evolution. In public utterances, he repeatedly used the Darwinian catchwords while he mocked at perpetual peace, lest it hinder the evolutionary process." R.E.D. Clark, Darwin: Before and After (1948), p. 115.

As with *Hitler, *Mussolini was captivated both by *Darwin and *Nietzsche, who, in turn, founded his beliefs on Darwin.

"Benito Mussolini who brought fascism to Italy, was strengthened in his belief that violence is basic to social transformation by the philosophy of *Nietzsche." -*Encyclopedia Britannica (1982), Vol. 16, p. 27.

Shocked by what evolutionary theory has done to society in the 20th century, Wilder-Smith makes this comment:

"Social Darwinism belongs to the most dangerous elements within the thoughts of [received from] the last century. It aids the propagation of ruthless national and racial egoism by establishing it as a moral norm. If Hitler believed in anything at all, then it was in the laws of evolution which justified and sanctified his actions and especially his cruelties." A.E. Wilder-Smith, Natural Sciences Know Nothing of Evolution (1981), p. 148.


POSITIVISM The Frenchman, Auguste Comte (1798-1857), one of the originators of sociology, is considered the founder of Positivism, the "scientific" religion. This was supposed to be evolution of the mind, of the understanding. Everything supernatural must be thrown out, including all religion. All morality must be based on reason, with none from revelation. His views were taken very seriously by the 19th century founders of biologic evolution: *Darwin, *Huxley, and their associates.

SOCIAL DARWINIANS Revolutionary socialists are also called Social Darwinians by political historians of our century. This is because their concepts came directly from *Darwin's writings, or indirectly from early disciples of his, such as *Haeckel and *Nietzsche.

"Like the right-wing politicians, the revolutionary socialists saw in evolution a way of stifling their consciences. The new doctrine justified men in struggling for their rights-even though the struggle involved a denial of the Christian virtues." -R.E.D. Clark, Darwin: Before and After (1948), p. 113.

It was a wedding of evolutionary theory with Western-style business and politics.

"What is usually called 'Social Darwinism' was the wedding of evolutionary ideas to a conservative political program in the 1870s. It had a particular vogue among American businessmen, elevating traditional virtues of self-reliance, thrift and industry to the level of 'natural law' . . Its proponents urged laissez-faire economic policies to weed out the unfit, inefficient and incompetent." -*R. Milner, Encyclopedia of Evolution (1990), p. 412.

*Darwin applied his theories to animals; Social Darwinians applied them to people, which is understandable; did not Darwin say we were just animals?

*Gertrude Himmelfarb, who obtained her doctorate at the University of Chicago, after researching deeply into the social impact of Darwinism, wrote a shocking expose of how it had ravished the 20th-century world. Noting that Darwin's book, Origin of the Species, was sub-titled The Preservation of Favored Races in the Struggle for Life, she then made this statement:

"It was but a short step [from Darwin's evolutionary theory] to the preservation of favored individuals, classes, or nations-and from their preservation to their glorification. Social Darwinianism has often been understood in this sense: as a philosophy, exalting competition, power and violence over convention, ethics and religion. Thus it has become a portmanteau of nationalism, imperialism, militarism, and dictatorship, of the cults of the hero, the superman, and the master race." -*Gertrude Himmelfarb, Darwin and the Darwinian Evolution (1959), p. 343-344.

"Superior racism" was but one among several Darwinian concepts used by these revolutionary socialists.

"The new period of imperialism at the end of the 19th century found its spiritual support in Bismarckism and social Darwinism, in all the theories glorifying power and success, which had swept over Europe with the German victory over France in 1870. Racial theories seemed to give strength to this attitude, which was in opposition to all the traditional theories of morality." -Hans Kohn, article "Imperialism," in Encyclopaedia Britannica (1949 ed.).

Darwinism is a pseudo-scientific theory, for, as we have seen repeatedly, it has no basis in scientific fact. This non-scientific theory was termed "biologically scientific,"-and then transformed into a "socially scientific" theory. But the social theory was just as false as the parent theory.

"The pseudo-scientific application of a biological theory to politics . . constituted possibly the most perverted form of social Darwinism. . It led to racism and antisemitism and was used to show that only "superior" nationalities and races were fit to survive. Thus, among the English-speaking peoples were to be found the champions of the "white man's burden," an imperial mission carried out by Anglo-Saxons . . Similarly, the Russians preached the doctrine of pan-Slavism and the Germans that of pan-Germanism." -*T. W. Walbank and *A.M. Taylor, Civilization Past and Present, (1961), Vol., 2, p. 362.

SPENCER * Herbert Spencer (1820-1903) was a pioneer in introducing Darwinian principles into sociological fields.

"Probably the chief theoreticians of Social Darwinism were Herbert Spencer in England (18201903) and William Grant Sumner (1840-1910) in America. Spencer, who had used the term 'survival of the fittest' in his own books even before Darwin did, was a great popularizer of evolution. He specifically applied Darwinian principles to society and insisted that evil laws should never contribute to the artificial preservation of those people who were least able to take care of themselves." -H.M. Morris, History of Modern Creationism (1984), p. 46.

*Spencer led out in the introduction of sociology in England, and he was careful to clothe it in Darwinist concepts. From there it traveled to America.

"Herbert Spencer is generally reputed as second in importance only to Comte in the founding of modern sociology. Both Marx and Spencer also became profoundly committed to Darwinism. It is ironic that these two bitterly anti-Christian philosophers, both followers of Comte and both promoters of Darwin, became the founders of two sociological systems that have been competing ever since. Marx was the father of the left-wing sociological system known as 'communism,' while Spencer became the main founder of the right-wing sociological system known ever since as 'social Darwinism.' . .

"Herbert Spencer was almost as effective as Thomas Huxley in promoting Darwinism in England and the United States. He was a doctrinaire evolutionist even before Darwin became one, in fact, and coined the phrase 'survival of the fittest.' as the famous watchword characterizing Darwinism." -Henry M. Morris, Long War Against God (1990), pp. 38-39.

The founder of sociology believed that the unfit needed to be eliminated, so society could properly evolve.

"Spencer's concept of social evolution had the poor classes 'eliminated' by their 'unfitness,' while rational men armed from interfering with the inexorable 'laws' of evolution. The result, he believed, would be an 'evolved' society." -*R. Milner, Encyclopedia of Evolution (1990), p. 415.

One of the leading sociologists of the 20th century wrote this:

"Undoubtedly the most potent influences contributing to the rise and development of truly historical sociology were Spencer's theory of cosmic evolution and the Darwinian doctrine of organic evolution and their reactions upon social science." -*Harry E. Barnes, Historical Sociology (1948), p. 13.

DeYoung adds this:

"There was a philosophical foundation in place which made Darwin's ideas immediately successful. Herbert Spencer, Georg Hegel, Thomas Malthus-all played a part. Azar argues that evolution theory of Darwin's day was basically philosophical and biological. In fact, the term 'evolution' was not used by Darwin in any of the first five editions of Origin of the Species, though he was familiar with the word. Nor was the word used in [his] Descent of Man or in Lamarck's writings. It was philosophers who first popularized the word and applied evolutionary doctrine to their systems of thought." -Don B. De Young, "Book Review," Creation Research Society Quarterly, September 1990, p. 73.

It was *Spencer that originated the terms "evolution" and "survival of the fittest"-and gave both terms to *Darwin and *Wallace.

"Nowhere in the first edition of Charles Darwin's masterpiece On the Origin of the Species (1859) does he use the phrase 'survival of the fittest.' It was actually coined by the English philosopher Herbert Spencer." "As with 'survival of the fittest,' it was British philosopher Herbert Spencer who originated the term 'evolution' in this context. Wallace and Darwin later adopted it but, in the public mind, both phrases have become completely identified with the theories of Charles Darwin." -*R. Milner, Encyclopedia of Evolution (1990), pp. 424, 159.

WILLIAM GRANT SUMNER *William Grant Sumner (1840-1910) was professor of Political Economics at Yale, and taught many of the future business and industrial leaders of America. The laissez-faire capitalism of the American industrialists at that time was but one of the evil fruits of evolutionary theory.

Sumner: Let the strong survive and the weak perish.

"Sumner became famous as the philosopher and spokesman of Social Darwinism in America; he was an energetic advocate of letting the strong survive and the weak perish in the social and economic spheres." -*R. Miller, Encyclopedia of Evolution (1990), p. 421.

"America's own leading social Darwinist was William Grant Sumner of Yale, who vigorously fought programs of government control and public welfare as so much obstructive interference with the law of the survival of the fittest. . To help the unfit was to injure the fit and accomplish nothing for society." -*Gilman M. Ostrander, The Evolutionary Outlook: 1875-1900 (1971), p. 5.

He decided that millionaires were "the fittest."

"One of Social Darwinism's leading spokesmen, William G. Sumner of Princeton, thought millionaires were the 'fittest' individuals in society and deserved their privileges. They were 'naturally selected in the crucible of competition.' " *R. Milner, Encyclopedia of Evolution (1990), p. 412.


LESTER FRANK WARD Evolutionary collectivism, also called evolutionary socialism, stressed cooperation and planning in promoting social evolution, rather than an individual struggle for existence and dominance. Lester Frank Ward (1841-1913) was the first American leader In this field; in fact, he is generally considered the father of sociology in America. An evolutionist, he approached social science differently than did *Spencer and *Ward. He taught at Brown University,

"Ward admitted that, in all lower forms of life, environment was the determining factor in the evolutionary process, but that with man the case was quite different, for here the mind of man could, and should, exercise a determining influence on environment . .

"According to the concept of acquired characteristics, the characteristics that one generation consciously acquired for its own betterment would be transmitted to those which should follow it . . The forces of evolution would be guided toward the realization of human happiness which, for Ward, was man's chief end in life." -*C. Gregg Singer, Theoretical Interpretation of American History (1964), pp. 113-114.

*Ward was no less an evolutionist than the others, but he wanted to accomplish it through unified action. The great objective was "planned evolution of society" toward a utopia which the evolutionists thought was best for it. These "social planners" based their plans on the writings of socialists, communists, and evolutionists.

"Ward replaced the Darwinism of Sumner, which upheld individual action, with a Darwinism that was closely akin to Marx and Nietzsche. For Ward, a sociocratic state was the all in all." -*Op. cit., p. 117.


FREUD For his theories, Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) was deeply indebted to the evolutionary training he received in Germany as a young man. He fully accepted it, as well as *Haeckel's recapitulation theory. Freud began his Introductory Lectures on Psychoanalysis (1916) with the statement of Haeckel's premise: "Each individual somehow recapitulates in an abbreviated form the entire development of the human race."

"In 1938, he explained that 'with neurotics it is as thought we are in a prehistoric landscape-for instance in the Jurassic. The great saurians [dinosaurs] are still running around; the horsetails grow as high as palms.'

"Stephen Jay Gould notes that 'recapitulation was both central and pervasive in Freud's intellectual development.' His 'oral' and 'anal' stages represent not only the infant's early experiences, but also hark back to a four-legged animal ancestry." -*R. Milner, Encyclopedia of Evolution (1990), p. 177.

Freud's "Oedipus complex" was based on an imaginative theory of "primal horde" he developed about a mental complex that caveman families developed long ago, that had come down to our own time. Anxiety complexes, he theorized, first developed in our ancestors during earlier Ice Ages.

"Most writers have treated Freud as if his theories had arisen fully formed out of his own system of thought, with no scientific precedents. In fact, as Frank Sulloway has shown in Freud, Biologist of the Mind (1979) this 'absolute originality' is a myth; 19th-century evolutionary ideas had an enormous influence in shaping Freud's thought." -*Ibid.

WILLIAM JAMES *William James (18421910) was another evolutionist who became a leader in a field of American thought. James was strongly influenced by *Ward's teachings and writings. James' view of psychology placed the study of human behavior on an animalistic evolutionary basis. He called his view, "pragmatism," but it included far more than that practical word would normally signify.

7 - LAW

OLIVER WENDELL HOLMES, JR. *Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. (1841-1935) powerfully affected the U.S. Supreme Court, in both viewpoint and legal precedents. He was forceful in his positions, a leading justice on the high court, and he was on it for 30 years. As a result, the prevalent view on the Supreme Court has since tended toward the concept that law is a product of evolution and should continue to evolve in accord with social policy.


WELLS. DOYLE, AND SHAW We have little idea of the extent to which 20th century literary forms have been molded by evolutionary teachings. Here are three examples:

*H. G. Wells (1866-1946), the science fiction pioneer based his imaginative writings on evolutionary teachings.

"More than any other writer, H.G. Wells is the father of modern science fiction . . Wells' Martians were 'the fast intelligent creatures who were clearly the product of an alien planetary environment and an alien evolution'. . Wells was trained in science as a student of Professor Thomas H. Huxley, the combative champion of Darwinian biology. After he won fame as an author, Wells often acknowledged Huxley's influence." -*R. Milner, Encyclopedia of Evolution (1990). p. 461.

*Sir Arthur Conan Doyle (1859-1930), like a variety of evolutionists before and since, was also a avid spiritist. He was a foremost writer of 20th century mystery stories. Many of his stories were based on evolutionary themes. For example, his The Lost World, is about an explorer who goes to South America and discovers a "lost world" of dinosaurs, flying reptiles, and all the rest.

*George Bernard Shaw (1856-1950) was so deeply involved in evolutionary theory, that he openly declared that he wrote his plays to teach various aspects of the theory.

"Audiences continue to enjoy Shaw's plays, almost entirely unaware they were intended as propaganda for the evolutionary religion he believed could save the world." -*R. Milner, Encyclopedia of Evolution (1990), p. 405.



COMMUNIST DARWINISM *Marx and *Engel's acceptance of evolutionary theory, made it the basis of all later Communist ideology.

"Darwinism was welcomed in Communist countries since Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels had considered The Origin of the Species (1859) a scientific justification for their revolutionary ideology. As far as Socialist theorists were concerned, Darwinism had proved that change and progress result only from bitter struggle. They also emphasized its materialist basis of knowledge, which challenged the divine right of the czars." -*R. Milner, Encyclopedia of Evolution (1990), p. 119.

But, before discussing the relation of Marxism to current evolutionary theory, we need to note that Russia wanted a variant of Darwin's theory. Oddly enough, although communist doctrine is wedded to Darwinism, it prefers a variant of *Darwin's theory of slow, gradual changes. Instead of accepting natural selection as the mechanism by which evolution operates, communists believe that Lamarckism is the mechanism by which it is done. This is the teaching of inheritance of acquired characteristics. According to it, if you cut off your leg or shaved your head, your children will have only one leg and no hair on their heads. Or if a person works hard at body-building and weight-lifting, his children will inherit much larger muscles than their ancestors otherwise had. Merely two or three generations of such activity would produce a super race. Yet we know that this does not happen. (See chapter 13, Natural Selection, for more on this.) Marxist political theory required sudden, revolutionary uprisings, communist leaders wanted a scientific theory that would match it. Darwin's slow changes were unacceptable to them.

"The Marxists were never completely sold on [classical] Darwinism. Conway Zirkle, professor of Botany at the University of Pennsylvania, says that the Marxists do not accept or reject biological theories in accordance with objective evidence, but by how well they fit Communist doctrine. Darwinism does not altogether fit.

"T.D. Lysenko, whose ideas supplanted the science of genetics in Russia until recently, said in 1948, *Darwin was unable to free himself from the theoretical mistakes which he committed. These errors were discovered and pointed out by the Marxist classists. Evolution by natural selection is at present not acceptable under Communism, but evolution by a Lamarckian type of environmental influence." -Bolton Davidheiser, in Creation Research Society Quarterly, March 1969, p. 152.

Mendelian genetics was officially outlawed in Russia in 1948, for it disproved too many things. In that year, Lamarckianism became the official scientific dogma of Soviet science.

Along with it, "synthetic speciation," or the sudden transformation of one animal into another ("hopeful monster" theory) was also adopted.

"Marxian biology,' as this writer called it, included the idea that evolution could be accelerated and guided by controlling the environment. Lamarckianism, a evolution thorough inheritance of acquired characteristics, was promoted not only by Marx and Engels, but also by Lenin and Stalin. All of these men wrote extensively on biology, and two generations of Russian biologists were essentially forced to follow this official Communist Party position." -H. M. Morris, Long War Against God (1989), p. 87.

For more information on communistic evolutionary theory in the West, see chapter 29, History of Evolutionary Theory.

MARXISTS it is freely admitted by several leading evolutionary scientists of our time that Marxism and Darwinism are closely related.

"Aspects of evolutionism are, perfectly consistent with Marxism. The explanation of the origins of humankind and of mind by purely natural forces was, and remains, as welcome to Marxists as to any other secularists. The sources of value and responsibility are not to be found in a separate mental realm a in an immortal soul, much less in the inspired words of the Bible." -*Robert M. Young, "The Darwin Debate," in Marxism Today, Vol. 26. April 1982, p. 21.

When Chinese Communists came to power in the 1950s, they eagerly grasped evolutionary theory as a basic foundation of their ideology. Yet the theory had been accepted by Chinese intellectuals nearly a century earlier!

"During the 19th century, the West regarded China as a 'sleeping giant,' isolated and mired in ancient traditions. Few Europeans realized how avidly Chinese intellectuals seized on Darwinian evolutionary ideas and saw in them a hopeful impetus for progress and change.

"According to the Chinese writer Hu Shih (Living Philosophies, 1931), when Thomas Huxley's Evolution and Ethics was published in 1898. it was immediately acclaimed and accepted by Chinese intellectual. Rich men sponsored cheap Chinese editions so they could be widely distributed to the masses . .

"China now boasts a fine Paleontological Institute in Beijing and a cadre of paleontologists." -*R. Milner, Encyclopedia of Evolution (1990), p. 81.

Three Marxists have been among the leading evolution zealots of our time. One is *Alexander Ivanovich Oparin, another is *J.B.S. Haldane, and the third is *Steven Jay Gould. As this chapter is being written (1990), Steven Gould is the most influential evolutionist in America. By his own admission, he favors Marxism.

"Alternate conceptions of change have respectable pedigrees in philosophy. Hegel's dialectical laws, translated into a materialist context, have become the official 'state philosophy' of many socialist nations. These laws of change are explicitly punctuational, as befits a theory of revolutionary transformation in human society . . In the light of this official philosophy, it is not at all surprising that a punctuational view of speciation, much like our own, . . has long been favored by many Russian paleontologists. It may also not be irrelevant to our personal preferences that one of us learned his Marxism, literally, at his daddy's knee." -*Steven Gould and *Miles Eldredge, "Punctuated Equilibria: the Tempo and Mode of Evolution Reconsidered," in Paleobiology, June/July 1977, p. 145.

Although the public is still being taught classical neo-Darwinism (natural selection and mutations producing biological evolution), as of early 1980, Steven Jay Gould's "hopeful monster" theory (sudden million-fold mutational change in a species about every 50,000 years) has become the leading theory among evolutionary scientists. Because of Gould's overarching influence among evolutionists today, we will give special attention to him. The following statements clearly show that he devised his "hopeful monster" theory to agree with Marxist teachings about progress being generated by wars and catastrophes, not by slow, peaceful transitions. (For detailed explanation of this theory (also known as saltation and punctuated equilibria), as well as a refutation of it, see chapter 14, Mutations.)

"Regardless of the well-known objections, both social [anti-Marxist] and scientific [anti-evolutionist], to the theory of punctuated equilibria via evolution, it has within the last decade virtually swept aside all competition and become accepted by the vast majority of evolutionists in the United States. Stephen Jay Gould was chosen as 'Man-of-the-Year in Science' by Discover magazine and appeared on the cover of Newsweek The educational system is slow to be turned from a pervasive course, however, and few [school] textbooks even mention punctuated equilibria theory a decade after it was first widely Publicized." -LD. Sunderland, Darwin's Enigma (1988), pp. 110-111.

Knowledgeable scientists object to accepting a major scientific theory of evolutionary transitions, just because it is the view preferred by Marxists.

..Some evolutionists reject the punctuationalist ["hopeful monster"] version of evolution for sociological reasons, contending that it is a philosophy growing out of the revolutionary concept of Marxism. Dr. Beverly Halstead of Reading University in England has expressed this objection in print several times. Although to an outsider, there might appear to be a rather tenuous connection, the claim does have some relevance if statements by its current champions have any relevance . .

"It is interesting shat Gould has occasionally tried to give the impression that he objected to being called a Marxist, but yet has never denied being one. In fact, at least once under oath in a court deposition for the trial regarding the constitutionality of the Louisiana Balanced Treatment Law, he acknowledged that he was a Marxist." -Luther D. Sunderland, Darwin's Enigma (1988), pp. 108-109.

The punctuational (saltatory or hopeful monster) version of Darwinism sees biological change as coming only in sudden bursts. This agrees with communist doctrine that social change comes only in sudden, revolutionary bursts of activity. In contrast, classical Darwinism offered uniformitarianism: slow, quiet, almost imperceptible change.

"If it could be established that the pattern of evolution is a saltatory one after all, then at long last the Marxists would indeed be able to claim that the theoretical basis of their approach was supported by scientific evidence. Just as there are 'scientific' creationists seeking to falsify the concept of gradual change through time in favor of creationism, so too there are the Marxists who for different motives are equally concerned to discredit gradualism." L.B. Halstead, "Museum of Errors, " in Nature, November 20, 1980, p. 208.

Morris and Parker describe the ideological ramifications of the theory:

"Gould and many like-minded colleagues, in fact, clearly have political motives as well [in their "hopeful monster" theory of evolutionary development]. These latter-day fantasies of improvements by quantum jumps, order by perturbation, structure through dissipation, hope through monsters, advance through catastrophes, and evolution by revolution are beautifully tent with Marxian dialectics, and have long been advocated in Soviet Russia." -H.M. Morris and G.E. Parker, What is Creation Science? (1987), p. 245.

*Edward Wilson, also of Harvard, has had a number of abrasive confrontations with *Steven Gould. Wilson opposes both Gould's theory and the Marxist background behind it.

"..[As far as Gould is concerned,] When Darwin conflicts with Marx, Darwin goes." -*Edward 0. Wilson, quoted in Robin Henry, "Science for the People: Revolution's Evolution, " in Bioscience, June 1979, p. 342.

*Michael Ruse, another leading evolutionist of our time, says it in no uncertain terms:

"Quite openly, one of the leading punctuated equilibrists, Stephen Jay Gould, admits to his Marxism, and lauds the way in which his science is informed by his beliefs, and how conversely his beliefs are bolstered by his science . . In short, what I argue is that through and through, Gould produces and endorses a view of paleontology which is molded by, and conversely supports and proclaims a view of the world he holds dear. We are offered the fossil record as seen through the lens of Marxism." -*Michael Ruse, "The Ideology of Darwinism, " in E. Geisler arid W. Scheler (eds.), Darwin Today (1983), p. 246

Two other Western Marxist scholars, *Levins and *Lewontin, recently co-authored a book on Marxist biology (The Dialectical Biologist. *Hull reviewed their book and said this:

"Richard Levine and Richard Lewontin are two of the most knowledgeable and innovative evolutionary biologists working day. They also view themselves as Marxist revolutionaries. As Marxists, Levine and Lewontin insist that the economic substructure of a society strongly influences its ideational superstructure, including science." -*David L. Hull, "Darwin and Dialectics," in Nature March 8, 1985, p. 23.

ORIGIN OF SALTATION THEORY The hopeful monster theory-which is the leading version of Darwinism accepted by scientists today,-originated in Russia. Sunderland explains in detail how evolutionary theory had become dry and sterile in the United States by the 1930s. The arrival of *Theodosius Dobzhansky from Russia brought a revival as he began preaching a neo-Darwinian variation of Darwinism. Soviet scientists had worked it out in Marxist think tanks in Moscow and Leningrad as a concept which would agree with their Marxist "sudden revolution" ideas. Brought to the United States, it revived faltering evolutionary theory.

"Theodosius Dobzhansky was one of the authors of the neo-Darwinian synthetic theory, which temporarily salvaged Darwinism in the 1930s when it was practically dead. He was told how, when the communists overthrew the Czarist government and took control in Russia in 1917, they needed a materialistic basis for their world system. They recognized evolution as the solution to the problem, accepting it as their official explanation of dialectical materialism. They virtually raised Charles Darwin to sainthood.

"Just before his death, Dobzhansky gave a paper at a 1974 conference organized to review the history and status of the evolutionary synthesis. The papers given at this conference were published in a book by Ernst Mayr and William Provine, The Evolutionary Synthesis. In Dobzhansky's paper, 'The Birth of the Genetic Theory of Evolution in the Soviet Union in the 1920s,' he gave a historical sketch of evolution theory in Russia and showed how it formed the basis for the new communist political movement which was germinating there . .

"When Dobzhansky left Russia in December 4, 1927, he brought with him the major tenets of what later was to be called 'neo-Darwinism' or the 'modern synthesis,' often credited to the Anglo-American trio of Fisher, Haldane, and Wright. These included the concepts of the gene pod and genetic drift. He went to Columbia University and joined forces with Simpson, Ernst Mayr, and others who together brought the theory of evolution into respectability again. Ernst Mayr told the author [Sunderland] that, when he came to Harvard in the early 1950s, there had not been a course in evolution taught there for over twenty-five years. He started the first modern evolution course at Harvard in 1952." -Luther D. Sunderland, Darwin's Enigma (1988), 109-110.

The sudden-change theory revived evolutionary theory because it could agree with the evidence of unchanging species found in the fossil record.

In his book, Blowing the Whistle on Darwinism (pages 4-5), Lester McCann discusses how the Soviet scientists adapted *Hugo DeVries idea about mutations and worked it into a neo-Darwinian concept that mutations produce evolutionary change. He also explains how the Soviet scientist, *Alexander Oparin, working through his International Organization for the Study of Evolution, and the British physiologist, *J.B.S. Haldane (a former editor of the communist London Dally Worker helped bring neo-Darwinism to Europe and America, and revitalize the nearly-dead Darwinism.

Then the sudden-change theory was amplified into full-fledged hopeful monster theory. Moscow came up with another adaptation. It accepted the "hopeful monster" concept that had bandied about America since the 1930s when Goldschmidt initially championed it. This theory required even more violent overturning and change, suggestive of the violent class struggles which Marx and Lenin advocated. Earnest Marxists, such as *Gould then began urging it in on the continent and in America. The result is that, by the 1980s, most Western scientists had adopted this latest theory.

Thus, not only did *Darwin early influence *Marx and *Nietzsche in their revolutionary thinking, but in the 1930s, and main in the 1950s, the revised Marxist brand of Darwinism made the connection even closer. But none of this is ever mentioned in the college textbooks or popular magazines. it would be a terrible thing to let the public know that modern evolutionary theory is rebaptized Marxism.

In chapter 14, we thoroughly discredit the possibility that mutations could ewer produce species change. In fact, mutations, which are always weakening and generally fatal, are not even able to produce favorable results within a species, much less producing a new one.


DARWINIAN RACISM it is well to keep in mind the full title of *Charles Darwin's 1859 book: On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favored Races in the Struggle for Life.

*Milner explains *Darwin's view on this, and quotes him:

"Darwin then proposes a mechanism for the way it [evolution] wake. Natural selection is a two-step process: (1) overproduction and variation within a species, and (2) greater survival and reproduction of those individuals with any slight advantage over their follows; 'fitter' traits are preserved and accumulated in successive generations. 'Multiply, vary, let the strongest live [and reproduce] and the weakest die [leaving few progeny].' " -*R. Milner, Encyclopedia of Evolution (1990), p. 344.

It is significant that the leading racists have been evolutionists. This racism idea tends to fall into two categories: (1) Those who believe their race is superior, and they need to keep down or conquer other races. (2) Those who believe that some races are little better than animals and deserve to be enslaved or killed off. In contrast, creationists recognize that all men were created by God and that all are of equal value in His sight.

*Charles Darwin and *Thomas Huxley, both evolutionary champions, held to racist ideas. Here is a sample statement penned by Darwin himself:

"The more civilized so-called Caucasian races have beaten the Turkish hollow in the struggle for existence. Looking to the world at no very distant date, what an endless number of the lower races will have been eliminated by the higher civilized races throughout the world." -*Charles Darwin, Life and Letters, p. 318.

"Biological arguments for racism may have been common before 1859, but they increased by orders of magnitude following the acceptance of evolutionary theory." -*Stephen Jay Gould, Ontogeny and Phylogeny (1977), p. 127.

Those urging "survival of the fittest" tend to be the ones favoring killing off various races, as well as eliminating the aged, the weak, the handicapped, and the unborn. Basic ethics and beliefs of the two camps are behind the reason why creationists oppose the slaying of unborn babies, while evolutionists are more likely to favor it. In the 1910s the war was against nations, in the 1930s and 1940s it was against races, in the 1970s and 1980s it has been against the unborn.

"The study of human origins by anthropologists was particularly influenced by racist considerations, and this situation extended well into the first half of the 20th century. It is well known that Darwin and Huxley, as well as Haeckel, believed in white supremacy, as did practically all the nineteenth century evolutionary scientists, but it is not ore widely known that the leading 20th century physical anthropologists also shared such opinions." -H.M. Morris, History of Modern Christianity (1984), pp. 48-49.

To the confirmed "survivalists," people are just another form of animate, to be herded, brainwashed, controlled, conditioned, enslaved, and exterminated. Use others and then throw them away is their philosophy.

"The pseudo-scientific application of a biological theory to politics . . constituted possibly the most perverted form of social Darwinism . . It led to racism and antisemitism and was used to show that only 'superior' nationalities and races were fit to survive. Thus, among the English-speaking peoples were to be found the champions of the 'white man's burden,' an imperial mission carried out by Anglo-Saxons. . Similarly, the Russians preached the doctrine of pan-Slavism and the Germans that of pan-Germanism." -*T. W. Walbank and *A.M. Taylor, Civilization Past and Present, Vol. 2 (1961 eo'.) Vol. 2, p. 362.

No doubt about it; *Darwin was a zealous racist. Interestingly enough, a racist always believes that it is his race which is the best!

"Racism is the belief that other human groups are inferior to one's own and can therefore be denied equal treatment." -*R. Milner, Encyclopedia of Evolution (1990), p. 414.

"Almost any 19th or even mid-20th century book on human evolution carries illustrations showing the progression: monkey, ape, Hottentot (or African Negro, Australian Aborigine, Tasmanian, etc.) and white European. Few of the early evolutionists were free of such arrogance, not even the politically liberal Charles Darwin and Thomas Huxley." -*R. Milner, Encyclopedia of Evolution (1990), p. 380.

*Darwin had a very definite view about this. The time would come when the white races would kill off all the other races, and then evolution would have proceeded even farther.

"Darwin postulated, in the sixth edition of his Descent of Man, that the time would come when the white peoples would have destroyed the black. He also thought that the anthropoid apes would become extinct. He believed that when these two eventualities had occurred the evidence of evolution among living creatures would not be as strong as previously." -Bolton David Heiser, in Creation Research Society Quarterly, March 1989, p. 151.

*Darwin's theories came to full fruition in the Third Reich.

"[Houston S.] Chamberlain wrote this prophetic statement in his Foundations [1899]: 'Though it were proved that there never was an Aryan race in the past, yet we desire that in the future there may be one. That is the decisive standpoint for men of action.'

"When asked to define an Aryan during the height of the Nazi madness, Josef Goebbels proclaimed, 'I define who is Jewish and who is Aryan!'

"During the German Third Reich (1933-1945), the ideal of Aryan purity and supremacy became that nation's official policy. Adolph Hitler's program of herding 'interior' races into concentration camps and gas chambers was rationalized as making way for the new order of superior humanity. Meanwhile, S.S. officers were encouraged to impregnate selected women under government sponsorship to produce a new 'master race'-an experiment that produced a generation of ordinary, confused orphans.

"Hitler was furious when the black American Jesse Owens outraced 'Aryan' athletes at the 1936 Berlin Olympics, contradicting his theories of racial supremacy. And when the 'Brown Bomber' Joe Louis knocked out boxer Max Schmeling, German propaganda became even more vehement that white superiority would be vindicated. However, when Hitler needed the Japanese as allies in World War II, he promptly redefined the those Asians as Aryans." -*R. Milner, Encyclopedia of Evolution (1990), pp. 25-26.

Why Darwin's evolutionary theories should be popular among non-white races is something of a mystery-since he and his associates were confidently anticipating a time when the non-European races would be destroyed!

"Darwin's notion that the various races were at different evolutionary distances from the apes, with Negroes at the bottom and Caucasians at the top, was not unique to him, but rather was almost universal among the evolutionary scientists of the nineteenth century . .

"It was not only Darwin and Huxley, the two top evolutionists, who were racists. All of them were! This fact has been documented thoroughly in a key book by John Halter, appropriately entitled Outcasts from Evolution.." -H.M. Morris, Long War Against God (1989), pp. 60-81.

"Many of the early settlers of Australia considered the Australian Aborigines to be less intelligent than the 'white man,' because aborigines had not evolved as far as whites on the evolutionary scale. In fact, the Hobart Museum in Tasmania [Australia] in 1984 listed this as one of the reasons why early white settlers killed as many aborigines as they could in that state." -Ken Ham, Evolution: The Lie (1987), p. 86.

A noted Chinese scientist, * Kenneth Hsu, wrote these words about his feelings about *Charles Darwin:

"My abhorrence of Darwinism is understandable, for what member of the 'lower races' could remain indifferent to the statement attributed to the great master (Darwin, 1881, in a letter to W. Graham) that 'at no very distant date, what an endless number of the lower races will have been eliminated by the higher civilized races throughout the world.'" -*Kenneth J. Hsu, in Geology, April 1987, p. 377.


EUGENICS *Charles Darwin's cousin, *Sir Francis Gallon, coined the word "eugenics" in 1883. He first published his theories in 1865 in a series of magazine articles, which later were expanded in his book, Hereditary Genius (1869).

The "science" of eugenics was a major emphasis of the late-19th and first half of the 20th century. *Adolf Hitler used it so successfully, that it fell into disfavor after World War II. The glorious promise of eugenics was that humanity would be wonderfully improved if certain races, the elderly, and certain others were eliminated. The inglorious results were the death camps of Germany and Poland where Hitler exterminated six million people because they did not conform to his standard of eugenics. Eugenics was but another gift of the Darwinists to the world:

"Darwinism spawned mangy offshoots. One of these was launched by Darwin's first cousin, Francis Galton.

Obsessed, as were many, by the implications of the 'fittest,' Galton set out in 1883 to study heredity from a mathematical viewpoint. He named his new science eugenics, from a Greek root meaning both 'good in birth' and 'noble in heredity.' His stated goal was to improve the human race, by giving 'the more suitable races or strains of blood a better chance of prevailing speedily over the less suitable.'" -*Otto Scott, "Playing God," in Chalcedon Report, No. 247, February 1986, p. 1.

The "German experiment" showed what it was all about.

"Once almost obligatory in all biology textbooks, the promotion of eugenic programs was set back by the disastrous, barbarous attempts to create a 'master race' in Nazi Germany." -*R. Milner, Encyclopedia of Evolution (1990), p. 156.

"Nazi eugenics had two aspects: the extermination of millions of 'undesirables' and the selection and breeding of preferred 'Aryan' types. It was an article of faith that the blond, blue-eyed 'Nordic-looking' children would also prove intellectually and morally superior and that they would 'breed true' when mated. Neither assumption was correct." -*Op. cit., p. 272.

"In 1936, *Heinrich Himmler and his Stormtroopers (S.S.) founded an institution called Lebensborn a "Fountain of Life." Its purpose was to create millions of blond, blue-eyed 'Aryan' Germans as the genetic foundation of the new 'Master Race.' Lebensborn children would be raised to be obedient, aggressive, patriotic and convinced their destiny was to dominate or destroy all 'inferior' races or nations. Gallon's well-intentioned dream of human improvement had become a nightmare in reality." -*Op. cit., p. 271.

They did more than breed and kill; they also stole children.

"On his first inspection tour of occupied Poland, Heinrich Himmler had been amazed by the Nordic appearance of many 'Slavic' children and decided it was his duty to kidnap them from their parents and send them to Lebensborn foster homes and orphanages in Germany. Two special S.S. agencies-the Volksdeutsche Liaison Office and the Race and Settlement Office searched Europe for 'human specimens considered suitable for Germanization.' They also `cleared' vast areas of land of 'inferior' Poles and Jews by killing or enslaving the inhabitants, and practiced euthanasia (mercy killing) on thousands of Germans who were feebleminded, infirm, mentally ill or crippled. (The gas chambers were originally invented to weed out their own 'unfit' Germans, and were later applied to the genocide of entire 'undesirable races,' particularly Jews.)" -*R. Milner, Encyclopedia of Evolution (1990), p. 272.

CARE FOR THE POOR AND NEEDY AS you might expect of a man whose theories could excite such vicious men as *Nietzsche, *Marx, *Stalin, and *Hitler, *Charles Darwin believed that the poor and needy ought to be left to die, unhelped by their neighbors.

"[Peter] Kropokin criticized Darwin's remarks in the Descent of Man (1871) about the 'alleged inconveniences' of maintaining what Darwin called the 'weak in mind and body' in civilized societies. Darwin seamed to think advanced societies were burdened with too many 'unfit' individuals." -*R. Milner, Encyclopedia of Evolution (1990), p. 259.

It is the highest irony that the people most likely to accept Marxism are poor people in Third World countries-yet the Darwin/Marx theory was that poor people should never be helped. If they want anything let them fight for it; if they do not succeed, let them die. Apparently, the only people really favored by Darwin/Marx/Nietzscheism were well-to-do members of the white race.

"Darwin often said quite plainly that it was wrong to ameliorate the conditions of the poor, since to do so would hinder the evolutionary struggle for existence." -R.E.D. Clark, Darwin: Before and After, (1958), p. 120.

BIG BUSINESS Beginning in the latter part of the last century, large industrialists also looked to Darwin as their mentor-or rather, their excuse-for the savage business maneuvers they conducted which gobbled up or destroyed their competitors. Oddly enough, the large labor unions have acted the same way, making sure that theirs is the only union serving a given field.

"Industrial giants like John D. Rockefeller and Andrew Carnegie did indeed adopt Social Darwinist views about being 'the fittest,' their ruthlessness justified as part of a great law of nature." -*R. Milner, Encyclopedia of Evolution (1990). p. 59.

"By the late 19th century, 'survival of the fittest' had become the slogan of American free enterprise. Andrew Carnegie and John D. Rockefeller justified ruthless competition as the price of evolutionary progress. As big winners, they like to believe they had been 'naturally selected' as the best of men." -*R. Milner, Encyclopedia of Evolution (1990), p. 448.

*John D. Rockefeller became a leader in the oil, chemical, and drug cartels.

"[Rockefeller] once regaled a Sunday School audience with an account of how natural selection operated for the best interest of society as a whole. He compared the evolution of business with the evolution of a superior variety of rose." "Gertrude Himmelfarb, Darwin and the Darwinian Revolution (1968), p. 419.

John D. Rockefeller declared to a Sunday school class: "The growth of a large business is merely a survival of the fittest . . This is not an eve tendency in business. It is merely the working-out of a law of nature and a law of God." -*R. Holstedler, Social Darwinism and American Thought, (1955), p. 45.

*Andrew Carnegie became the wealthiest and most powerful owner of steel mills in America.

"Carnegie rose in business to become a powerful, ruthless tycoon who exploited man and Earth, crushed competition, and justified his actions by a philosophy of Social Darwinism.

"Entrepreneurial competition, he believed, does a service to society by eliminating the weaker elements. Those who survive in business are 'fit,' and therefore deserve their positions and rewards

." 'Before Spencer,' Carnegie said repeatedly, 'all for me had been darkness, after him, all had become light-and right.' It was Spencer, after all, and not Darwin [for Spencer taught it to him], who was the author of the phrase 'survival of the fittest.' " -*R. Milner, Encyclopedia of Evolution (1990), p. 72.

"Evolution. . gave the doer of evil a respite from his conscience."

"Unscrupulous industrialists took advantage of Darwin's theory to condone their unethical practices. When they put others out of business, they declared that it was just another case of survival of the fittest.

"The railroad magnate, James J. Hill, manipulating to get more railways under his control, said that 'the fortunes of railroad companies are determined by the law of the survival of the fittest.'

"Robert E.D. Clark comments: 'Evolution, in short, gave the doer of evil a respite from his conscience. The most unscrupulous behavior towards a competitor could now be rationalized; evil could be called good." -Bolton Davidheiser, in W. E. Lemmerts (ed.), Scientific Studies in Special Creationism (1971), pp. 338-339.

PUBLIC EDUCATION Although we will discuss this in much more detail in the next chapter (chapter 34 Evolution and Education), it can be noted here that the leading figure in early 20th century American education, *John Dewey, was an vigorous Darwinist. He founded and led out in the "progressive education movement," which so greatly affected U.S. educational history.

"John Dewey . . Incorporated James' pragmatism into his own philosophy of 'instrumentalism,' along with a thorough-going commitment to collectivist Darwinism, and became by any reckoning the moat influential architect of governmental education, not only in America but throughout the world. He abundantly fulfilled Ward's goal of turning America's public schools into centers of indoctrination in evolution, humanism, and collectivism." -H.M. Morris, History of Modern Creationism (1984), p. 54.

"Progressive education" was nothing more than careful animal training:

"An absolute faith in science became the driving force behind the progressives.. the most important idea that would influence the educators was that of evolution-the notion that man, through a process of natural selection, had evolved to his present state from a common animal ancestry." -Samuel L. Blumenfeld, NEA: Trojan Horse in American Education (1984), p. 43.

"The underlying assumption of progressive education was that the child is simply an evolved animal and must be trained as such-not as an individual created in God's image with tremendous potential as an individual. A child was considered but one member in a group and therefore must be trained collectively to fit into his or her appropriate place in society. Dewey studied Russia's educational system extensively and was a socialist himself, as well as a materialistic pantheist." -Henry Morris, Long War Against God (1989), p. 48.

In 1933, *John Dewey became a charter member of the American Humanist Association and its first president. The basic statement of beliefs of the AHA were published that year under the title, Humanist Manifesto, and later became the unofficial framework of teaching in most school textbooks.

The education of both youth and adults has been seen as the crux in winning the world to the myth of evolution. In order to make atheists of everyone, the schools must be controlled by evolutionists.

"It is essential for evolution to become the central core of any educational system, because it is evolution, in the broad sense, that links inorganic nature with life, and the stars with the earth, and matter with mind, and animals with man. Human history is a continuation of biological evolution in a different form." -*Sir Julian Huxley, quoted in *Sol Tax and *Charles Callender (ads.), Evolution After Darwin, 3 vol. (1960).


EVOLUTION AND CHRISTIANITY It is a surprising and unfortunate fact that the great majority of Christian denominations have either accepted evolutionary theory in whole or in part, or treat it as a matter of little doctrinal concern. There are very, very few denominations which still officially adhere strictly to the teachings of Genesis.

It is not often that we now hear clear, ringing statements such as these in the official church papers of most denominations:

"There is no more reason to believe that man descended from some inferior animal than there is to believe that a stately mansion has descended from a small cottage." -William Jennings Bryan, (1860-1925), quoted in *Asimov's Book of Science and Nature Quotations, p. 91.

"The resources of the Deity cannot be so meager, that in order to create a human being endowed with reason, He must change a monkey into a man." -Louis Agassiz, Methods of Study In Natural History (1863), p. iv.

"What shall we say of the intelligence, not to say religion, of those who are so particular to distinguish between fishes and reptiles and birds, but put a man with a soul in the same circle with the wolf, the hyena, and the skunk? What must be the impression made upon children by such a degradation of man?" -William Jennings Bryan (1860-1925), quoted in *Asimov's Book of Science and Nature Quotations, p. 91.

HIGHER CRITICISM Higher criticism was essentially born in Germany when non-Christian Bible professors produced theories about the Bible that would agree with Darwinism.

"Out of Darwin and his so-called scientific method grew the higher criticism of the 19th century . . What were the results of this teaching of liberalism? There was a high and false estimate of the ability of human nature. It promoted the illusion that the kingdom of God was capable of being fulfilled in history, for man's ability could bring this to pass. There came with it the abandonment of the distinctive and exclusive character of the message of the Gospel and the loss of the uniqueness of Christianity; and secularization of life and thought can also be traced at least in part to the teaching of liberalism in the last century." -Charles C. Ayrie, Neo-Orthodoxy (1956), p. 18.

NEO-ORTHODOXY The "ministers' theologians" are those religion theorists who come up with peculiar new ways of expressing religious speculations. Reading the writings of these men intrigues local pastors who are fascinated with the big words, the somewhat mysterious sentence structure, and the novel concepts presented. But error is often woven into the fabric of these presentations. Far better it is to take the Word of God and stick with that, than to spend time trying to figure out the ideas of the modern theologians!

One of the errors clothed in beautiful garments in the writings of most of these high-level theologians is evolution.

"Evolution is at the foundation of communism, Fascism, Freudianism, social Darwinism, behaviourism, Kinseyism, materialism, atheism and, in the religious world, modernism and Neo-orthodoxy." -H.M. Morris, Twilight of Evolution (1963), p. 24.

A Darwinian scientist gloats over the fact that even the Christians are moving into line on the evolution question.

"Most enlightened persons now accept as a fact that everything in the cosmos-from heavenly bodies to human beings-has developed and continues to develop through evolutionary processes. The great religions of the West have come to accept a historical view of creation. ' Evolutionary concepts are applied also to social institutions and to the arts. Indeed, most political parties, as well as schools of theology, sociology, history, or arts, teach these concepts and make them the basis of their doctrines. Thus, theoretical biology now pervades all of Western culture indirectly through the concept of progressive historical change." -*R. Dubos, "Humanistic Biology," in American Scientist, (March, 1965), Vol. 53, p. 8.

One cannot accept these half-way house theories without rejecting basic truths of the atonement and salvation.

Charles Ryrie made an in-depth study into Neo-orthodox errors, and Morris quotes him:

"Dr. Ryrie (in his book, Neo-orthodoxy) proceeds to show how the leaders of Neo-orthodoxy (Barth, Brunner, Niebuhr, et. al.), while professing a return to biblical theology, continue to reject the accounts of Creation, the Fall, etc., as historic facts, and thus continue to build their religious system upon an evolutionary philosophy as its foundation:

" 'Thus the Genesis account of creation and the fall is rejected as history-as most of us understand history. Science, the Barthians say, has delivered us from having to believe the Genesis stories, and through the scientific deliverance, we are supposed to be able to see the real meaning of the accounts." -H.M. Morris, Twilight of Evolution (1963), pp. 2324. [quoting Charles C. Ayrie, Neo-Orthodoxy (1956), P. 51].

You have just completed