Evolution Handbook

Chapter 2d:

The Big Bang and Stellar Evolution

Why the Big Bang is a fizzle and stars cannot evolve out of gas


Here are a very few of many facts about our solar system which disprove the possibility of its being the result of evolutionary origins:

1 - There is no known mechanical process that can accomplish a transfer of angular (turning, spinning, orbiting) momentum from the sun to its planets.

A full 99.5 percent of all the angular (rotational) momentum in the solar system is concentrated in the planets,—yet a staggering 99.8 percent of all the mass is located in our sun! To an astrophysicist, this is both astounding and unexplainable. (Their theory is that the sun was rotating so fast, it hurled out the planets.)

Our sun is rotating rather slowly, but the planets are rotating far too fast in comparison with the sun. In addition, they are orbiting the sun far faster than the sun is itself turning. But if the planets did not orbit so fast, they would hurtle into the sun; and if the sun did not rotate slowly, it would fling its mass outward into space.

According to *David Layzer of Harvard, in order for the sun to originally have been part of the same mass as the planets and moons, it would have to rotate ten-million times faster. *Layzer adds, if the sun lost so much of its momentum, why did the planets not lose theirs?

2 - The orbits of Mercury, Pluto, asteroids, and comets each have an extreme inclination from the plane of the sun’s ecliptic. The solar origin theories cannot explain this.

3 - Both Uranus and Venus rotate backward, compared to all the other planets. The other seven rotate forward, in relation to their orbit around the sun. Uranus rotates at a 98o angle from its orbital plane. It is literally rolling along!

4 - One-third of the moons have retrograde (backward) motion, opposite (!) to the rotational direction of their planets. The official evolutionists’ theory for how these backward-rotating moons formed is this: The planet hurled them out, then drew them back, and they began orbiting it. Evolutionists try to explain everything in our world and the universe as a bunch of fortunate accidents.

5 - The continued existence of these moons is unexplainable. For example, Triton, the inner of Neptune’s moons, with a diameter of 3,000 miles [4827 km], is nearly twice the mass of our moon, yet revolves backward every six days, has a nearly circular orbit,—and is only 220,000 miles [353,980 km] from its planet! It should fall into its planet any day now, but it does not do so.

6 - There are such striking differences between the various planets and moons, that they could not have originated from the same source.

"The solar system used to be a simple place, before any spacecraft ventured forth from the Earth . . But 30 years of planetary exploration have replaced the simple picture with a far more complex image. ‘The most striking outcome of planetary exploration is the diversity of the planets,’ says planetary physicist David Stevenson of the California Institute of Technology. Ross Taylor of the Australian National University agrees: ‘If you look at all the planets and the 60 or so satellites [moons], it’s very hard to find two that are the same.’ "—*Richard A. Kerr, "The Solar System’s New Diversity," Science 265, September 2, 1994, p. 1360. [150 moons now known.]

7 - Many say that material from the sun made the planets and moons. But the ratio of elements in the sun is far different than that found in the planets and moons. One could not come from the other. How then could the earth and other planets be torn out of the sun (planetesimal theory) or come from the same gas cloud that produced the sun (nebular hypothesis)

"We see that material torn from the sun would not be at all suitable for the formation of the planets as we know them. Its composition would be hopelessly wrong."—*Fred Hoyle, "Where the Earth Came from," Harper’s, March 1951, p. 65.

8 - How could the delicate rings of Saturn have been formed from gas, collisions, or some other chance occurrence? (Those rings include ammonia, which should rather quickly vaporize off into space.)

9 - Saturn has 17 major moons, yet none of them ever collide with the rings. The farthest one out is Phoebe, which revolves in a motion opposite to Saturn and its rings. How could that happen?

10 - Nearly all of Saturn’s moons are different from one another in the extreme. Titan, alone, has a thick atmosphere (thicker than ours). Enceladus has an extremely smooth surface, whereas the other moons are generally much rougher. Hyperion is the least spherical and shaped like a potato. The surface of Iapedus is five times darker on one side than on the other. One moon is only 48,000 miles [77,232 km] above Saturn’s cloud cover! There are three co-orbital moon sets; that is, each set shares the same orbit and chases its one or two companions around Saturn endlessly. Some of Saturn’s moons travel clockwise, and others counterclockwise. How could all those moons originate by chance?

11 - As noted earlier, the chemical makeup of our moon is distinctly different than that of earth. The theorists cannot explain this.

"To the surprise of scientists [after the Apollo moon landings], the chemical makeup of the moon rocks is distinctly different from that of rocks on Earth. This difference implies that the moon formed under different conditions. Prof [A.G.W.] Cameron explains, and means that any theory on the origin of the planets now will have to create the moon and the earth in different ways."—*J.E. Bishop, "New Theories of Creation," Science Digest 72, October 1972, p. 42.

12 - Our moon is larger in relation to the planet it orbits than is any other moon in our solar system. Go out at night a look at it. To have such a huge body circling so close to us—without falling into the earth—is simply astounding. Scientists cannot keep their satellites orbiting the earth without occasional adjustments. Lacking such adjustments, the orbits decay and the satellites eventually fall and crash. Yet, century after century, our moon maintains an exquisitely perfect orbit around the earth.

"The moon is always falling. It has a sideways motion of its own that balances its falling motion. It therefore stays in a closed orbit about the Earth, never falling altogether and never escaping altogether."—*Isaac Asimov’s Book of Facts (1979), p. 400.

"Now the moon’s elliptical motion around the earth can be split into horizontal and vertical components. The vertical component is such that, in the space of a second, the moon falls a trifle more than 1/20 inch [.127 cm] toward the earth. In that time, it also moves about 3300 feet [1001 m] in the horizontal direction, just far enough to compensate for the fall and carry it around the earth’s curvature."—*Isaac Asimov, Asimov’s New Guide to Science (1984), pp. 873-874.



Gravity. Gravity is the weakest force in the universe, yet it is in perfect balance. If gravity were any stronger, the smaller stars could not form; any weaker, the bigger stars could not form and no heavy elements could exist. Only red dwarf stars would exist, and these would radiate too feebly to support life on a planet.

Proton to Neutron ratio. A proton is a subatomic particle found in the nucleus of all atoms. It has a positive electric charge that is equal to the negative charge of the electron. A neutron is a subatomic particle that has no electric charge. The mass of the neutron must exceed that of the proton in order for the stable elements to exist. But the neutron can only exceed the mass of the proton by an extremely small amount—an amount that is exactly twice the mass of the electron. That critical point of balance is only one part in a thousand.

If the ratio of the mass of the proton to neutron were to vary outside of that limit—chaos would result. If it were any less or more, atoms would fly apart or crush together—and everything would be destroyed. If the mass of the proton were only slightly larger, the added weight would cause it to quickly become unstable and decay into a neutron, positron, and neutrino. This would destroy hydrogen, the dominant element in the universe. A Master Designer planned that the proton’s mass would be slightly smaller than that of the neutron. Otherwise the universe would collapse.

Photon to baryon ratio. A photon is the basic quantum, or unit, of light or other electro-magnetic radiant energy, when considered as a discrete particle. The baryon is a subatomic particle whose weight is equal to or greater than that of a proton. This photon-to-baryon ratio is crucial. If the ratio were much higher than it is, stars and galaxies could not hold together through gravitational attraction.

Nuclear force. It is the nuclear force that holds the atoms together. If it were larger, there would be no hydrogen, only helium and the heavy elements. If it were smaller, there would only be hydrogen and no heavy elements. Without hydrogen and the heavy elements there could be no life. Without hydrogen, there could be no stable stars.

If the nuclear force were only one part in a hundred stronger or weaker than it now is, carbon could not exist, and carbon is the basic element in every living thing. A two-percent increase would eliminate protons.

Electromagnetic force. If it were just a very small amount smaller or larger, no chemical bonds could form. A reduction in strength by a factor of only 1.6 would result in the rapid decay of protons into leptons. A threefold increase in the charge of the electron would render it impossible for any element, other than hydrogen, to exist. A threefold decrease would bring the destruction of all neutral atoms by even the lowest heat—such as is found in outer space.

It would be impossible for evolution to produce the delicate balances of these forces. They were planned. In spite of the delicate internal ratio balance within each of the four forces (gravitation, electromagnetism, and the weak and strong forces), those basic forces have strengths which differ so greatly from one another that the strongest is ten thousand billion billion billion billion times more powerful than the weakest of them. Yet the complicated math required for the Big Bang theory requires that all basic forces had to be the same in strength—during and just after that explosion occurred!

Evolutionists cannot claim that these delicate balances occurred as a result of "natural selection" or "mutations,"—for we are here dealing with the basic properties of matter; there is no room here for gradual "evolving." The proton-neutron mass ratio, for example, is what it has always been—what it was since the Beginning! It has not changed; it will not change. It began just right; there was no second chance! The same applies to all the other factors and balances in elemental matter and the physical principles governing them.



It is difficult to even think about outer space. You and I have never lived there. So we shall consider six primary aspects of matter and stellar evolutionary theories as occurring right here on earth. In doing so, we can see the utter foolishness of each of these requirements for outer-space evolutionary theory.

1. When nothing makes itself into something. Experiment One: Go into an empty room and clean it out well. Remove all the furniture and even the dust. Seal up the windows and lock the doors and leave. Come back periodically and check to see what happens. The air inside the room should change itself into different types of matter, such as birds, chemicals, grass, etc. Or take a vacuum bottle and extract as much air and gaseous material as possible. Seal it. The contents should change into something else. Conclusion: Nothing never makes itself into anything.

2. When gas begins twirling. Experiment Two: With all the doors and windows shut, and everything inside and outside the house evenly cold, the air in the house should begin rotating and then push itself into a solid. Conclusion: Gas left alone in a cold place will not do anything.

3. When gas gravitates into a solid. Experiment Three: Gas is supposed to push itself into solids. We will help it along, by starting with the high-pressure propane tank in your backyard. Fill it as full as possible, thus helping to push the gas together. Wait and check it periodically. The contents should change themselves into a solid. Then open the valve to see how the situation is proceeding: All the contents will rush out. Conclusion: "Nature may abhor a vacuum," but gas abhors being pushed together!

4. When hydrogen changes itself into the heavier atoms. Experiment Four: As a rule, hydrogen in stars only changes into helium. But when a large-enough star explodes, sizeable amounts of the hydrogen are said to change into heavier elements (elements above helium). Admittedly, we cannot equal this experiment on earth, since the explosion of a large star is required. But we have evidence from outer space on this point. The A.D. 1054 explosion of a star produced the Crab nebula. Analysis of the gas from that nebula revealed few, very few heavier elements. Conclusion: Supernova explosions, which are infrequent, could not have produced the present amounts of heavier elements.

5. When stars get together. Experiment Five: There are hundreds of millions of multiple star systems, in which several stars are close to one another and mutually orbit each other. Simulate this by taking three or four circular magnets (you will find one on the back of every TV set in the junkyard). Place them close together and, by hand, have them orbit one another. They are never to come together, but only to circle one another. Scientists know that the gravitational ("magnetic-like") attraction of an average star is about 5 light-years. They also know that multiple stars are far closer to each other than 5 light-years! So, like magnets, they ought to rush together if not properly kept apart by exacting orbits. Conclusion: You cannot put magnets close together without them coming together, no matter how carefully you try to keep them from doing so. It is impossible for stars to randomly arrange themselves into short- or long-term orbits with anything. Try dropping one magnet past another repeatedly, and see if it will accidentally go into orbit!

6. When randomness organizes itself. Experiment Six: Go to your local junkyard and ask that it be locked up and closed off for a year. Return from time to time and watch how it cleans itself up and then arranges itself into an orderly collection of materials. Conclusion: Randomness never organizes itself. Incoherent matter in outer space could never arrange itself into orbiting stars, galaxies, and planetary systems.


What is the age of the universe, as calculated by some of the most prominent theories being considered in our time? Here they are:

*Gamow: 3-5 billion years. *Peebles and *Wilkinson: 7 billion years. *Ashford: 10-15 billion years. *Shklovski: 70 billion years. *Alfven: trillions of years. *Hoyle: infinite time.

By the late 1980s, evolutionist scientists were pretty much in agreement that the universe was 15-20 billion years old. But new data surfaced in the early 1990s, which required them to lower the age to 15 billion years or less. The problem is the Big Bang theory leans heavily on the speed theory of the redshift;—and there are now quasars which, according to the speed theory, are older than 15 billion years. So the evolutionists are being squeezed on both ends of their grand time continuum.


By the early 1970s, so much scientific data had poured in repudiating the basic aspects of the various cosmologies, that something had to be done. In the past, the elusive hope had always offered itself that, even though all the past theories of matter and stellar origins might be in shambles, there was always the possibility that some brilliant mind might yet come up with a solution.

In April 1972, the top minds in stellar physics, chemistry, and astronomy gathered at the Nice Symposium. A declaratory statement of purpose included this comment:

"The Symposium has also served in delineating the areas of our ignorance, in particular in relation with the hydrodynamics of the nebula [motions of gas clouds], and with the physicochemistry of the ‘sticking process’ [getting gas together into stars and planets]."—*Symposium Statement, quoted in R.E. Kofahi and K.L. Segraves, The Creation Explanation, p. 141.

Many insurmountable problems were discussed, but it seemed that all the participants could do was list the problems. No one seemed to have any answers.

"[1] Yet to be discussed adequately is the detailed fragmentation of the massive cloud in which protostars are born. [2] Also in question are the hydrodynamics and stability considerations of the protosun nebula. [3] Most important, there remain to be specified the crucial experimental tests that can distinguish between the available viable theories. [4] It is particularly disappointing that we have almost no useful information on the specific solid state processes at work in the accretion phase."—*Review of Nice Symposium, quoted in op. cit., p. 143.

Here, in simple language, is a restatement of the above questions, for which scientists have no answers: (1) How did the first cloud break apart and change into stars? (2) How did the gas clouds whirl themselves toward production of stellar objects, in such a way as to solve the angular momentum problem? (3) Boys, we ought to be able to experimentally prove at least one of these theories! (4) How did the gas push itself into solids?

*H. Reeves, the editor of the final Symposium Report, listed seven fundamental problems. The above reviewer quotes them:

"Do the sun and planets originate in the same interstellar cloud? If so, how was the planetary matter separated from the solar gas? How massive was the nebula? How did the collapsing cloud cross the thermal, magnetic, and angular momentum barriers? What were the physical conditions in the nebula? What was the mechanism of condensation and accretion [of gas into stars, planets, etc.]? How did the planets, with their present properties and solar distances, form?"—*Ibid.

If you open a typical science book on astronomy, you will find theories about the origin of the universe and stars stated with great certainty, and you will be bombarded with paintings of gas clouds and protostars.

If you attend a closed-door conference, such as the Nice Symposium, you will find worried men, desperate theories, scientific facts which condemn those theories, a lack of alternative explanations, an atmosphere of hopeless despair in the face of unproven and unprovable ideas, and no solutions or scientific experiments able to alleviate the situation.


We will conclude with a few quotations. You will find far more on our website. The first one, by an evolutionist, describes the evolutionary, or sorry state, universe:

"Our Universe had its physical origin as a quantum fluctuation of some preexisting true vacuum, or state of nothingness."—*Edward P. Tryon, "What Made the World?" in New Scientist, March 8, 1984, p. 16.

Another scientist, a leading astronomer who spent his time studying the stars instead of speculative writings, said this:

"A scientific study of the universe has suggested a conclusion which may be summed up in the statement that the universe appears to have been designed by a pure mathematician."—*Sir James Jeans, The Mysterious Universe, p. 140.

Another astronomer, writing more recently, put it this way:

"It seems to be one of the fundamental features of nature that fundamental physical laws are described in terms of a mathematical theory of great beauty and power, needing quite a high standard of mathematics for one to understand it . . One could perhaps describe the situation by saying that God is a mathematician of a very high order, and He used very advanced mathematics in constructing the universe."—*Scientific American, May 1963, p. 53.

The problem is that, although the evolutionists do not want the public to know it, the scientists cannot figure out how galaxies, stars, and planets originated. Although there are billions of stars out there, the experts do not have the slightest idea of how even one was produced.

"A handful of sand contains about 10,000 grains, more than the number of stars we can see on a clear night. But the number of stars we can see is only a fraction of the number of stars that are [there] . . The cosmos is rich beyond measure: the total number of stars in the universe is greater than all the grains of sand on all the beaches on the planet earth."—*Carl Sagan, Cosmos, 1980.

"The universe we see when we look out to its farthest horizons contains a hundred billion galaxies. Each of these galaxies contains another hundred billion stars. That’s 1022 stars all told. The silent embarrassment of modern astrophysics is that we do not know how even a single one of these stars managed to form."—*Martin Harwit, "Book Reviews," Science, March 1986, pp. 1201-1202.

"The problem of explaining the existence of the galaxies has proved to be one of the thorniest in cosmology. By all rights, they just shouldn’t be there, yet there they sit. It’s hard to convey the depth of frustration that this simple fact induces among scientists."—*James Trefil, Dark Side of the Universe (1988), p. 55.

"If stars did not exist, it would be easy to prove that this is what we expect."—*G.R. Burbidge, quoted by *R.L. Sears and *Robert R. Brownlee (eds: *L.H. Aller and *D. McLaughlin) Stellar Structures (1963), p. 577.

"But if we had a reliable theory of the origin of planets, if we knew of some mechanism consistent with the laws of physics so that we understood how planets form, then clearly we could make use of it to estimate the probability that other stars have attendant planets. However no such theory exists yet, despite the large number of hypotheses suggested."—*R.A. Lyttleton, Mysteries of the Solar System (1968), p. 4.

"I suspect that the sun is 4.5 billion years old. However, given some new and unexpected results to the contrary, and some time for frantic recalculation and theoretical readjustment, I suspect that we could live with Bishop Ussher’s value for the age of the Earth and Sun [4004 B.C.]. I don’t think we have much in the way of observational evidence in astronomy to conflict with that."—*John Eddy, Geotimes (1978).

It is for such reasons as the above, that many scientists are turning to the only other cause of stars, galaxies, and planets.

"Like most scientists, Einstein included, I have an almost religious belief in a basic underlying order—a belief that natural forces are just manifestations of some deeper thing."—*William Kaufmann, "Luminous Reputations," in Science Digest, Vol. 89, No. 1 (1981), p. 8.

"The details differ, but the essential elements in the astronomical and biblical accounts of Genesis are the same: the chain of events leading to man commenced suddenly and sharply at a definite moment in time, in a flash of light and energy . . For the scientist who has lived by his faith in the power of reason, the story ends like a bad dream. He has scaled the mountain of ignorance; he is about to conquer the highest peak; as he pulls himself over the final rock, he is greeted by a band of theologians who have been sitting there for centuries."—*Robert Jastrow, God and the Astronomers (1978) [one of the best-known astronomers of the 20th century].

"Everything points with overwhelming force to a definite event or events of Creation at some time or times not infinitely remote."—*Sir James Jeans, Eos or The Wider Aspects of Cosmogeny, p. 35.

Sir Isaac Newton is considered one of the two greatest scientists of the last 500 years. He clearly saw the implications of celestial mechanics and the intricately designed wonders in the sky.

"One day, as Newton sat reading in his study with his mechanism on a large table near him, a friend, who saw things differently than he did, stepped in. Scientist that he was, he recognized at a glance what was before him. Stepping up to it, he slowly turned the crank, and with undisguised admiration watched the heavenly bodies all move in their relative speed in their orbits.

"Standing off a few feet he exclaimed, ‘My! What an exquisite thing this is! Who made it?’ Without looking up from his book, Newton answered, ‘Nobody.’

"Quickly turning to Newton, his friend said, ‘Evidently you did not understand my question. I asked who made this?’ Looking up now, Newton solemnly assured him that nobody made it, but that the apparatus had just happened to assume the form it was in.

"The astonished man replied with some heat, ‘You must think I am a fool! Of course somebody made it, and he is a genius, and I’d like to know who he is!’

"Laying his book aside, Newton arose and said, ‘This thing is but a puny imitation of a much grander system, whose laws you know,—and here I am not able to convince you that this mere toy before you is without a designer and maker!

" ‘Yet you profess to believe that the great original from which the design is taken, with its more massive and complicated orbital motions, has come into being without either designer or maker! Now tell me by what sort of reasoning do you reach such a conclusion?’ "—The Minnesota Technolog, October 1957.

"I know of no reason [for the motion of the planets] but because the Author of the system thought it convenient."—Isaac Newton, Four Letters to Richard Bentley, in *Milton K. Munitz (ed.), Theories of the Universe (1957), p. 212.


The marsupials are the pouched mammals. Two of the best-known are the American opossum (the only marsupial in North America) and the Australian kangaroo.

An egg develops inside the mother marsupial, and when it is born it is no larger than a tiny bean! It is blind, deaf, hairless, and looks somewhat like a tiny worm. A newborn opossum is smaller than a honey bee, and six will fit in a spoon. There are 12-15 in each litter.

Emerging from the birth canal, this almost brainless baby ought to drop onto the ground and die right there. But no, it holds tightly to the fur of its mother, and slowly crawls a long distance over to the pouch. The mother usually knows nothing about its birth, so does not help it in any way. How does the baby know which direction to travel?

Down into the pouch it goes, and there it fastens onto a nipple. Immediately, the nipple enlarges, locking the tiny creature to it. There it remains for many months as it grows.

The kangaroo makes two kinds of milk simultaneously: milk for the tiny baby, and other milk for a young kangaroo hopping alongside. Each type of milk differs considerably in nutritional content.




1 - Draw a simple sketch of our solar system, with the sun, planets, and some of the moons. Then draw a second sketch of what our part of the sky would look like if an outward moving explosion of gas [from a "Big Bang"] were to pass through it. Would it produce our sun, with planets circling it, and moons circling the planets?

2 - Draw a sketch of the supposed Big Bang in the center of a sheet of paper. All around it jot down brief-sentence reasons why that theory would be impossible.

3 - Draw a picture of electrons circling a nucleus. Find a Periodic Table of Elements. Do you believe those very complicated elements, with their whirling electrons, could have made themselves out of nothing?

4 - *Fred Hoyle developed an incorrect theory, known as the steady-state theory. Later he repudiated it publicly. What do you think of Dr. Hoyle for doing that? Do you think it is common for most evolutionists to later reject a theory they have held for many years?

5 - Write a paper disproving one of the following: Big Bang theory, background radiation theory, redshift theory, expanding universe theory.

6 - Could outward-flowing gas and random action of molecules really have produced stars, planets, and life on our world? Tell why you do or do not think so.

7 - Explain the difference between "Kelvin," "Celsius," and "absolute zero." How is "Celsius" different than "Fahrenheit"?

8 - Explain the difference between the four types of redshift explanations: (1) first-order Doppler effect (speed theory), (2) gravitational shift, (3) second-order Doppler effect, and (4) energy-loss, tired-light shift.

9 - Research the meaning of the following terms and explain each in a brief statement: laws of nature, angular momentum, helium mass 4 gap, periodic table of elements, supernova, inverse-square law, Hubble constant, second law of thermodynamics.